AT & T's Baudot to ASCII

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How is electricity created. See pictures on right

But first click here for an introduction by Albert Einstein - bind us together Lord with cords that cannot be broken - and the four forces in physics :-)

Click here for the earliest "electric machines" starting in 1663, called friction machines. Click here for a basic tutorial on static electricity, atoms and ions. Click here for a table of the basic elements. Click here for a timeline of the battery or cell (derived from the Greek "kalux" - shell — conceal or cover) invented in 1800 by Alessandro Volta. Click here for background to the electric telegraph, built in 1844.

Click here for the relationships in the use of its language: How volts of difference in charge between two points on a circuit divided by ohms of resistance produces amps of current and watts of power (by using coulombs of excess electrons/protons to specify joules of energy per second).

Click here for an excellent Yahoo article on current, both DC and AC (and how it lights a light bulb). With regards to alternating current, click here for another excellent article on the speed and distance that each individual coulomb of electrons travels (extremely tiny) as opposed to its potential energy (enormously large). Just like a north-seeking point of any magnet being pushed (or pulled) towards its attractive polar opposite "Great is the Lord and greatly to be prais-ed is the city of our God on the mountain of his holiness. Beautiful in elevation, the joy of the whole earth is Mount Zion on the sides of the north, the city of the great king" Psalm 48:1 click here to hear

Click here for further background to electric fields (formed whenever voltages push or pull) and magnetic fields (formed as the coulombs of electrons actually move). Click here for the electromagnetic frequencies and the discovery of radio. Click here for how the Voyager Spacecraft is able to transmit over a distance greater than 10 billion kilometres.

Click here for a modern day power grid, transmitted from power plant to house. In relation to the human (and animal) body, click here for how voltages are generated within the body, via salts dissolved within fluid. And click here for Jesus's words "being salted with fire".

What is a bit

Now, every microscopic transistor in a computer is in one of 2 states: charged or not charged (i.e. it holds a one or a zero). When transmitted to another computer by (1) positive/negative voltage variations on one wire relative to another wire, (2) current variations over copper telephone/telegraph cable (or high performing coaxial cable), (3) on/off light flashes over optic fibre cable, or (4) frequency variations over mobile wireless, each individual signal is ultimately either a one or a zero. Every 8 signals (or bits) thus have 2 to the 8th power in variations i.e. 256 different characters (or bytes). These 256 characters are sometimes called a character set and, in IBM / Microsoft parlance, a code page. Seven of the eight bits (which control the first 128 characters) have been standardized world wide and are known as ASCII - American Standard Code for Information Interchange, put together in 1960-63 by the American Standards Association subcommittee. In the all encompassing Unicode standard today, this set is referred to as Basic Latin.

And now for the Baudot Telegraph (and the teletype)

5-bit Telegraph

To see its background, we start with the Baudot Telegraph Code, transmitted originally through a five key piano-like machine (click here for a picture) having 5 wires (or channels) that enabled 2 to the 5th power i.e. 32 different characters. It had been developed by Émile Baudot in France in 1874 as a multiplexed (multi-user) system that had allowed up to four machines to transmit almost simultaneously (via the use of time-slices) to printing machines synchronized to those signals that printed text on a thin paper strip or "ticker tape" (click here for that picture). The 32 character code (ITA1) provided for 26 upper-case letters, then when numbers were required to be sent, a key would be pressed that acted somewhat like a NumLock key. A different keypress would switch this NumLock status off.

5-bit Teletype/teleprinter

Combining these codes with punched paper tape for higher speed transmission (click here for a picture) these Baudot codes were rearranged by Donald Murray in such a way as to reduce wear and tear on the tape perforating machine, and patented in the US in 1901. Interest was shown by Western Union, but with Morse code everywhere (that could run on a two-channel paper tape system, not five) companies were loath to change across. However, work continued on this five-unit code by the Morkrum Company, later known as the Teletype Corporation, that established a start and stop signal between each character. This enabled asynchronous communication between teleprinters over a single channel (telegraph wire and radio). Both simpler and cheaper.

First to adopt this was the Associated Press news cooperative in the US in 1914, then the Western Union Telegraph Company in 1923, followed by AT & T Corporation who purchased the Morkrum Company in 1930. Murray's Baudot code (known as ITA2) thus became the Teletype (TTY) standard. Click here for this timeline.

The first computers

6-bit Codes

Early computers, from the IBM 704 in 1954 onwards, used a sixbit code. Each manufacturer would have their own variation covering the upper-case letters, the numerals, some punctuation characters, and sometimes control characters.

7-bit ASCII

Seven-bit ASCII was first published in 1963, followed by a major revision in 1967. It was heavily promoted by AT&T in the US, with significant input also coming from the US Army. DEC's PDP-10 family of computers accordingly based their 6-bit character code on ASCII character codes 32 to 95. They then based the 8-bit character code for the PDP-11 on 7-bit ASCII. It was a PDP-10 which Gary Kildall used to develop his CP/M operating system for microcomputers (with ASCII) in 1973-74. ASCII's support for both upper-case and lower-case characters meant that Wang's dedicated word processor which used it was "flavour of the month" in 1976. The success of Wordstar, which ran initially on CP/M in 1979, and in 1982 was ported to run on the IBM, the market leader in both typewriters and computers, meant that 7-bit ASCII's future was secure.

8-bit Extended ASCII

But with the next 128 characters defined by the eighth bit — known as the extended set — a large number of proprietary variations (and problems) arose.

In 1969, the Japanese government published an industrial standard character set using the eighth bit called JIS C 6220 which they later referred to as JIS X 0201. In 1974, the Soviet authorities designed the KOI-8 character encoding, covering the Cyrillic alphabet. In the US, DEC's computers, the various CP/M installations, IBM's PC-DOS, and then Apple's Macintosh in 1984 all had different extended sets. In 1987, IBM (and Microsoft) launched PC-DOS 3.3 on the IBM PC and PS/2, having separate 8-bit code pages for numerous languages. In the same year a standardised list of 8-bit character sets was launched as a joint exercise by ISO and IEC, referred to as ISO/IEC 8859.

In other non-ASCII developments, since 1963-64 IBM had been providing 8-bit proprietary code pages known as EBCDIC that supported multilingual text on their mainframe and mid-range computers. Click here for a full list. In 1976 in Taiwan, Chu Bong-Foo launched Cangjie for traditional Chinese characters by using multiple keystroke characters. In 1984 in Beijing, Wang Yongmin released the Wubi input method on the IBM PC for the simplified Chinese characters used in mainland China.

16-bit Universal Unicode

Finally we come to Unicode, a 16-bit cross-platform character set developed by Joe Becker at Xerox, working with Lee Collins and Mark Davis at Apple, and published in 1991. A second volume covering Han ideographs was published in June 1992.

ANSI

Below is the ASCII based character set referred to as the ANSI code page, or the ISO-8859-1 character set. It came from the Multinational Character Set (MCS) that had been created in 1983 by DEC for use in their cross-platform VT220 terminal. Because of the non-displayable control characters that DEC had specified for character codes 128-159, many refer to this displayable version as the Windows-1252 code page, launched as part of Windows in 1985.

When selecting a character from this extended set (i.e. codes 128-255) in Windows, press the Alt key with the left hand, and simultaneously type a "0" then the number on the numeric key pad (not the top row numbers) with the right hand. When you release the Alt key, the character will be displayed.

Note too that characters with a value < 32 which are used for special control commands, do not require the "0" first. The character repertoire for these controls was taken from the character set of Wang word-processing machines, as explicitly admitted by Bill Gates in the interview of him and Paul Allen in the 2nd of October 1995 edition of Fortune Magazine: "... we were also fascinated by dedicated word processors from Wang, because we believed that general-purpose machines could do that just as well. That's why, when it came time to design the keyboard for the IBM PC, we put the funny Wang character set into the machine--you know, smiley faces and boxes and triangles and stuff. We were thinking we'd like to do a clone of Wang word-processing software someday."


     0 NUL   1 ☺     2 ☻     3 ♥     4 ♦     5 ♣     6 ♠     7 BELL  8 BS

     9 TAB  10 LF   11 VT   12 FF   13 CR   14 SO   15 SI   16 ►    17 ◄

    18 ↕    19 ‼    20 ¶    21 §    22 ▬    23 ↨    24 ↑    25 ↓    26 →

    27 ESC  28 ∟    29 ↔    30 ▲    31 ▼    32SPACE 33 !    34 "    35 #

    36 $    37 %    38 &    39 '    40 (    41 )    42 *    43 +    44 ,

    45 -    46 .    47 /    48 0    49 1    50 2    51 3    52 4    53 5

    54 6    55 7    56 8    57 9    58 :    59 ;    60 <    61 =    62 >

    63 ?    64 @    65 A    66 B    67 C    68 D    69 E    70 F    71 G

    72 H    73 I    74 J    75 K    76 L    77 M    78 N    79 O    80 P

    81 Q    82 R    83 S    84 T    85 U    86 V    87 W    88 X    89 Y

    90 Z    91 [    92 \    93 ]    94 ^    95 _    96 `    97 a    98 b

    99 c   100 d   101 e   102 f   103 g   104 h   105 i   106 j   107 k

   108 l   109 m   110 n   111 o   112 p   113 q   114 r   115 s   116 t

   117 u   118 v   119 w   120 x   121 y   122 z   123 {   124 |   125 }

   126 ~   127     128 €   129     130 ‚   131 ƒ   132 „   133 …   134 †

   135 ‡   136 ˆ   137 ‰   138 Š   139 ‹   140 Œ   141     142 Ž   143 

   144     145 ‘   146 ’   147 “   148 ”   149 •   150 –   151 —   152 ˜

   153 ™   154 š   155 ›   156 œ   157     158 ž   159 Ÿ   160     161 ¡

   162 ¢   163 £   164 ¤   165 ¥   166 ¦   167 §   168 ¨   169 ©   170 ª

   171 «   172 ¬   173     174 ®   175 ¯   176 °   177 ±   178 ²   179 ³

   180 ´   181 µ   182 ¶   183 ·   184 ¸   185 ¹   186 º   187 »   188 ¼

   189 ½   190 ¾   191 ¿   192 À   193 Á   194 Â   195 Ã   196 Ä   197 Å

   198 Æ   199 Ç   200 È   201 É   202 Ê   203 Ë   204 Ì   205 Í   206 Î

   207 Ï   208 Ð   209 Ñ   210 Ò   211 Ó   212 Ô   213 Õ   214 Ö   215 ×

   216 Ø   217 Ù   218 Ú   219 Û   220 Ü   221 Ý   222 Þ   223 ß   224 à

   225 á   226 â   227 ã   228 ä   229 å   230 æ   231 ç   232 è   233 é

   234 ê   235 ë   236 ì   237 í   238 î   239 ï   240 ð   241 ñ   242 ò

   243 ó   244 ô   245 õ   246 ö   247 ÷   248 ø   249 ù   250 ú   251 û

   252 ü   253 ý   254 þ   255 ÿ

Official ASCII Names (Originally developed by BELL for telecommunications): Control Characters 00: NULL 01: START OF HEADING 02: START OF TEXT 03: END OF TEXT 04: END OF TRANSMISSION 05: ENQUIRY 06: ACKNOWLEDGE 07: BELL 08: BACKSPACE 09: HORIZONTAL TABULATION 10: LINE FEED 11: VERTICAL TABULATION 12: FORM FEED 13: CARRIAGE RETURN 14: SHIFT OUT 15: SHIFT IN 16: DATA LINK ESCAPE 17: DEVICE CONTROL ONE 18: DEVICE CONTROL TWO 19: DEVICE CONTROL THREE 20: DEVICE CONTROL FOUR 21: NEGATIVE ACKNOWLEDGE 22: SYNCHRONOUS IDLE 23: END OF TRANSMISSION BLOCK 24: CANCEL 25: END OF MEDIUM 26: SUBSTITUTE 27: ESCAPE 28: FILE SEPARATOR 29: GROUP SEPARATOR 30: RECORD SEPARATOR 31: UNIT SEPARATOR Printable Characters 32: SPACE 33: EXCLAMATION MARK 34: QUOTATION MARK 35: NUMBER SIGN 36: DOLLAR SIGN 37: PERCENT SIGN 38: AMPERSAND 39: APOSTROPHE 40: LEFT PARENTHESIS 41: RIGHT PARENTHESIS 42: ASTERISK 43: PLUS SIGN 44: COMMA 45: HYPHEN-MINUS 46: FULL STOP 47: SOLIDUS 48-57: INDIVIDUAL NUMBERS 0-9 58: COLON 59: SEMICOLON 60: LESS-THAN SIGN 61: EQUALS SIGN 62: GREATER-THAN SIGN 63: QUESTION MARK 64: COMMERCIAL AT 65-90: INDIVIDUAL LATIN LETTERS UPPER-CASE A-Z 91: LEFT SQUARE BRACKET 92: REVERSE SOLIDUS 93: RIGHT SQUARE BRACKET 94: CIRCUMFLEX ACCENT 95: LOW LINE 96: GRAVE ACCENT 97-122: INDIVIDUAL LATIN LETTERS LOWER-CASE a-z 123: LEFT CURLY BRACKET 124: VERTICAL LINE 125: RIGHT CURLY BRACKET 126: TILDE Control Character 127: DELETE

The next 32 characters are actually ANSI control characters and are not C1 (Cross Platform) safe from a display perspective, e.g. different characters are displayed on the Apple MAC. See this excellent article for their Unicode equivalents

char dec col/row oct hex  description
[€]  128  08/00  200  80  EURO SYMBOL
[]   129  08/01  201  81  (UNDEFINED)
[‚]  130  08/02  202  82  LOW 9 SINGLE QUOTE
[ƒ]  131  08/03  203  83  FLORIN SIGN
[„]  132  08/04  204  84  LOW 9 DOUBLE QUOTE
[…]  133  08/05  205  85  ELLIPSIS
[†]  134  08/06  206  86  DAGGER
[‡]  135  08/07  207  87  DOUBLE DAGGER
[ˆ]  136  08/08  210  88  CIRCUMFLEX
[‰]  137  08/09  211  89  PER MIL SIGN
[Š]  138  08/10  212  8A  CAPITAL LETTER S WITH CARON
[‹]  139  08/11  213  8B  LEFT SINGLE QUOTE BRACKET
[Œ]  140  08/12  214  8C  CAPITAL DIGRAPH OE
[]   141  08/13  215  8D  (UNDEFINED)
[Ž]  142  08/14  216  8E  CAPITAL LETTER Z WITH CARON
[]   143  08/15  217  8F  (UNDEFINED)
[]   144  09/00  220  90  (UNDEFINED)
[‘]  145  09/01  221  91  HIGH 6 SINGLE QUOTE
[’]  146  09/02  222  92  HIGH 9 SINGLE QUOTE
[“]  147  09/03  223  93  HIGH 6 DOUBLE QUOTE
[”]  148  09/04  224  94  HIGH 9 DOUBLE QUOTE
[•]  149  09/05  225  95  LARGE CENTERED DOT
[–]  150  09/06  226  96  EN DASH
[—]  151  09/07  227  97  EM DASH
[˜]  152  09/08  230  98  TILDE
[™]  153  09/09  231  99  TRADEMARK SIGN
[š]  154  09/10  232  9A  SMALL LETTER S WITH CARON
[›]  155  09/11  233  9B  RIGHT SINGLE QUOTE BRACKET
[œ]  156  09/12  234  9C  SMALL DIGRAPH OE
[]   157  09/13  235  9D  (UNDEFINED)
[ž]  158  09/14  236  9E  SMALL LETTER Z WITH CARON
[Ÿ]  159  09/15  237  9F  CAPITAL LETTER Y WITH DIAERESIS

The remaining characters are C1 (Cross Platform) safe. In Unicode they are referred to as the Latin-1 Supplement.

char dec col/row oct hex  description
[ ]  160  10/00  240  A0  NO-BREAK SPACE
[¡]  161  10/01  241  A1  INVERTED EXCLAMATION MARK
[¢]  162  10/02  242  A2  CENT SIGN
[£]  163  10/03  243  A3  POUND SIGN
[¤]  164  10/04  244  A4  CURRENCY SIGN
[¥]  165  10/05  245  A5  YEN SIGN
[¦]  166  10/06  246  A6  BROKEN BAR
[§]  167  10/07  247  A7  PARAGRAPH SIGN
[¨]  168  10/08  250  A8  DIAERESIS
[©]  169  10/09  251  A9  COPYRIGHT SIGN
[ª]  170  10/10  252  AA  FEMININE ORDINAL INDICATOR
[«]  171  10/11  253  AB  LEFT ANGLE QUOTATION MARK
[¬]  172  10/12  254  AC  NOT SIGN
[ ]  173  10/13  255  AD  SOFT HYPHEN
[®]  174  10/14  256  AE  REGISTERED TRADE MARK SIGN
[¯]  175  10/15  257  AF  MACRON
[°]  176  11/00  260  B0  DEGREE SIGN, RING ABOVE
[±]  177  11/01  261  B1  PLUS-MINUS SIGN
[²]  178  11/02  262  B2  SUPERSCRIPT TWO
[³]  179  11/03  263  B3  SUPERSCRIPT THREE
[´]  180  11/04  264  B4  ACUTE ACCENT
[µ]  181  11/05  265  B5  MICRO SIGN
[¶]  182  11/06  266  B6  PILCROW SIGN
[·]  183  11/07  267  B7  MIDDLE DOT
[¸]  184  11/08  270  B8  CEDILLA
[¹]  185  11/09  271  B9  SUPERSCRIPT ONE
[º]  186  11/10  272  BA  MASCULINE ORDINAL INDICATOR
[»]  187  11/11  273  BB  RIGHT ANGLE QUOTATION MARK
[¼]  188  11/12  274  BC  VULGAR FRACTION ONE QUARTER
[½]  189  11/13  275  BD  VULGAR FRACTION ONE HALF
[¾]  190  11/14  276  BE  VULGAR FRACTION THREE QUARTERS
[¿]  191  11/15  277  BF  INVERTED QUESTION MARK
[À]  192  12/00  300  C0  CAPITAL LETTER A WITH GRAVE ACCENT
[Á]  193  12/01  301  C1  CAPITAL LETTER A WITH ACUTE ACCENT
[Â]  194  12/02  302  C2  CAPITAL LETTER A WITH CIRCUMFLEX ACCENT
[Ã]  195  12/03  303  C3  CAPITAL LETTER A WITH TILDE
[Ä]  196  12/04  304  C4  CAPITAL LETTER A WITH DIAERESIS
[Å]  197  12/05  305  C5  CAPITAL LETTER A WITH RING ABOVE
[Æ]  198  12/06  306  C6  CAPITAL DIPHTHONG A WITH E
[Ç]  199  12/07  307  C7  CAPITAL LETTER C WITH CEDILLA
[È]  200  12/08  310  C8  CAPITAL LETTER E WITH GRAVE ACCENT
[É]  201  12/09  311  C9  CAPITAL LETTER E WITH ACUTE ACCENT
[Ê]  202  12/10  312  CA  CAPITAL LETTER E WITH CIRCUMFLEX ACCENT
[Ë]  203  12/11  313  CB  CAPITAL LETTER E WITH DIAERESIS
[Ì]  204  12/12  314  CC  CAPITAL LETTER I WITH GRAVE ACCENT
[Í]  205  12/13  315  CD  CAPITAL LETTER I WITH ACUTE ACCENT
[Î]  206  12/14  316  CE  CAPITAL LETTER I WITH CIRCUMFLEX ACCENT
[Ï]  207  12/15  317  CF  CAPITAL LETTER I WITH DIAERESIS
[Ð]  208  13/00  320  D0  CAPITAL ICELANDIC LETTER ETH
[Ñ]  209  13/01  321  D1  CAPITAL LETTER N WITH TILDE
[Ò]  210  13/02  322  D2  CAPITAL LETTER O WITH GRAVE ACCENT
[Ó]  211  13/03  323  D3  CAPITAL LETTER O WITH ACUTE ACCENT
[Ô]  212  13/04  324  D4  CAPITAL LETTER O WITH CIRCUMFLEX ACCENT
[Õ]  213  13/05  325  D5  CAPITAL LETTER O WITH TILDE
[Ö]  214  13/06  326  D6  CAPITAL LETTER O WITH DIAERESIS
[×]  215  13/07  327  D7  MULTIPLICATION SIGN
[Ø]  216  13/08  330  D8  CAPITAL LETTER O WITH OBLIQUE STROKE
[Ù]  217  13/09  331  D9  CAPITAL LETTER U WITH GRAVE ACCENT
[Ú]  218  13/10  332  DA  CAPITAL LETTER U WITH ACUTE ACCENT
[Û]  219  13/11  333  DB  CAPITAL LETTER U WITH CIRCUMFLEX ACCENT
[Ü]  220  13/12  334  DC  CAPITAL LETTER U WITH DIAERESIS
[Ý]  221  13/13  335  DD  CAPITAL LETTER Y WITH ACUTE ACCENT
[Þ]  222  13/14  336  DE  CAPITAL ICELANDIC LETTER THORN
[ß]  223  13/15  337  DF  SMALL GERMAN LETTER SHARP s
[à]  224  14/00  340  E0  SMALL LETTER a WITH GRAVE ACCENT
[á]  225  14/01  341  E1  SMALL LETTER a WITH ACUTE ACCENT
[â]  226  14/02  342  E2  SMALL LETTER a WITH CIRCUMFLEX ACCENT
[ã]  227  14/03  343  E3  SMALL LETTER a WITH TILDE
[ä]  228  14/04  344  E4  SMALL LETTER a WITH DIAERESIS
[å]  229  14/05  345  E5  SMALL LETTER a WITH RING ABOVE
[æ]  230  14/06  346  E6  SMALL DIPHTHONG a WITH e
[ç]  231  14/07  347  E7  SMALL LETTER c WITH CEDILLA
[è]  232  14/08  350  E8  SMALL LETTER e WITH GRAVE ACCENT
[é]  233  14/09  351  E9  SMALL LETTER e WITH ACUTE ACCENT
[ê]  234  14/10  352  EA  SMALL LETTER e WITH CIRCUMFLEX ACCENT
[ë]  235  14/11  353  EB  SMALL LETTER e WITH DIAERESIS
[ì]  236  14/12  354  EC  SMALL LETTER i WITH GRAVE ACCENT
[í]  237  14/13  355  ED  SMALL LETTER i WITH ACUTE ACCENT
[î]  238  14/14  356  EE  SMALL LETTER i WITH CIRCUMFLEX ACCENT
[ï]  239  14/15  357  EF  SMALL LETTER i WITH DIAERESIS
[ð]  240  15/00  360  F0  SMALL ICELANDIC LETTER eth
[ñ]  241  15/01  361  F1  SMALL LETTER n WITH TILDE
[ò]  242  15/02  362  F2  SMALL LETTER o WITH GRAVE ACCENT
[ó]  243  15/03  363  F3  SMALL LETTER o WITH ACUTE ACCENT
[ô]  244  15/04  364  F4  SMALL LETTER o WITH CIRCUMFLEX ACCENT
[õ]  245  15/05  365  F5  SMALL LETTER o WITH TILDE
[ö]  246  15/06  366  F6  SMALL LETTER o WITH DIAERESIS
[÷]  247  15/07  367  F7  DIVISION SIGN
[ø]  248  15/08  370  F8  SMALL LETTER o WITH OBLIQUE STROKE
[ù]  249  15/09  371  F9  SMALL LETTER u WITH GRAVE ACCENT
[ú]  250  15/10  372  FA  SMALL LETTER u WITH ACUTE ACCENT
[û]  251  15/11  373  FB  SMALL LETTER u WITH CIRCUMFLEX ACCENT
[ü]  252  15/12  374  FC  SMALL LETTER u WITH DIAERESIS
[ý]  253  15/13  375  FD  SMALL LETTER y WITH ACUTE ACCENT
[þ]  254  15/14  376  FE  SMALL ICELANDIC LETTER THORN
[ÿ]  255  15/15  377  FF  SMALL LETTER y WITH DIAERESIS

The following characters make up the extended set of the IBM PC or MS-DOS code page 437, often abbreviated to CP437 and also known as OEM Extended ASCII — called OEM as it was built into the original equipment, the video card ROM manufactured with the IBM PC.

To select a character from the OEM extended set, press the Alt key with the left hand, and simultaneously type the number on the numeric key pad (not the top row numbers) with the right hand. When you release the Alt key, the character will be displayed.

If there is no ANSI (single byte) equivalent to the character being displayed, and you are using Notepad to save the file, be sure to then select Unicode / UTF-8 encoding, and not ANSI. The OEM codes will then be converted by Notepad to their Unicode / UTF-8 equivalent.


This following list includes the hex value of the Unicode (2 byte) equivalent

128= Ç U+00C7 : LATIN CAPITAL LETTER C WITH CEDILLA 
129= ü U+00FC : LATIN SMALL LETTER U WITH DIAERESIS
130= é U+00E9 : LATIN SMALL LETTER E WITH ACUTE
131= â U+00E2 : LATIN SMALL LETTER A WITH CIRCUMFLEX
132= ä U+00E4 : LATIN SMALL LETTER A WITH DIAERESIS
133= à U+00E0 : LATIN SMALL LETTER A WITH GRAVE
134= å U+00E5 : LATIN SMALL LETTER A WITH RING ABOVE
135= ç U+00E7 : LATIN SMALL LETTER C WITH CEDILLA
136= ê U+00EA : LATIN SMALL LETTER E WITH CIRCUMFLEX
137= ë U+00EB : LATIN SMALL LETTER E WITH DIAERESIS
138= è U+00E8 : LATIN SMALL LETTER E WITH GRAVE
139= ï U+00EF : LATIN SMALL LETTER I WITH DIAERESIS
140= î U+00EE : LATIN SMALL LETTER I WITH CIRCUMFLEX
141= ì U+00EC : LATIN SMALL LETTER I WITH GRAVE
142= Ä U+00C4 : LATIN CAPITAL LETTER A WITH DIAERESIS
143= Å U+00C5 : LATIN CAPITAL LETTER A WITH RING ABOVE
144= É U+00C9 : LATIN CAPITAL LETTER E WITH ACUTE
145= æ U+00E6 : LATIN SMALL LETTER AE
146= Æ U+00C6 : LATIN CAPITAL LETTER AE
147= ô U+00F4 : LATIN SMALL LETTER O WITH CIRCUMFLEX
148= ö U+00F6 : LATIN SMALL LETTER O WITH DIAERESIS
149= ò U+00F2 : LATIN SMALL LETTER O WITH GRAVE
150= û U+00FB : LATIN SMALL LETTER U WITH CIRCUMFLEX
151= ù U+00F9 : LATIN SMALL LETTER U WITH GRAVE
152= ÿ U+00FF : LATIN SMALL LETTER Y WITH DIAERESIS
153= Ö U+00D6 : LATIN CAPITAL LETTER O WITH DIAERESIS
154= Ü U+00DC : LATIN CAPITAL LETTER U WITH DIAERESIS
155= ¢ U+00A2 : CENT SIGN
156= £ U+00A3 : POUND SIGN
157= ¥ U+00A5 : YEN SIGN
158= ₧ U+20A7 : PESETA SIGN
159= ƒ U+0192 : LATIN SMALL LETTER F WITH HOOK
160= á U+00E1 : LATIN SMALL LETTER A WITH ACUTE
161= í U+00ED : LATIN SMALL LETTER I WITH ACUTE
162= ó U+00F3 : LATIN SMALL LETTER O WITH ACUTE
163= ú U+00FA : LATIN SMALL LETTER U WITH ACUTE
164= ñ U+00F1 : LATIN SMALL LETTER N WITH TILDE
165= Ñ U+00D1 : LATIN CAPITAL LETTER N WITH TILDE
166= ª U+00AA : FEMININE ORDINAL INDICATOR
167= º U+00BA : MASCULINE ORDINAL INDICATOR
168= ¿ U+00BF : INVERTED QUESTION MARK
169= ⌐ U+2310 : REVERSED NOT SIGN
170= ¬ U+00AC : NOT SIGN
171= ½ U+00BD : VULGAR FRACTION ONE HALF
172= ¼ U+00BC : VULGAR FRACTION ONE QUARTER
173= ¡ U+00A1 : INVERTED EXCLAMATION MARK
174= « U+00AB : LEFT-POINTING DOUBLE ANGLE QUOTATION MARK
175= » U+00BB : RIGHT-POINTING DOUBLE ANGLE QUOTATION MARK
176= ░ U+2591 : LIGHT SHADE
177= ▒ U+2592 : MEDIUM SHADE
178= ▓ U+2593 : DARK SHADE
179= │ U+2502 : BOX DRAWINGS LIGHT VERTICAL
180= ┤ U+2524 : BOX DRAWINGS LIGHT VERTICAL AND LEFT
181= ╡ U+2561 : BOX DRAWINGS VERTICAL SINGLE AND LEFT DOUBLE
182= ╢ U+2562 : BOX DRAWINGS VERTICAL DOUBLE AND LEFT SINGLE
183= ╖ U+2556 : BOX DRAWINGS DOWN DOUBLE AND LEFT SINGLE
184= ╕ U+2555 : BOX DRAWINGS DOWN SINGLE AND LEFT DOUBLE
185= ╣ U+2563 : BOX DRAWINGS DOUBLE VERTICAL AND LEFT
186= ║ U+2551 : BOX DRAWINGS DOUBLE VERTICAL
187= ╗ U+2557 : BOX DRAWINGS DOUBLE DOWN AND LEFT
188= ╝ U+255D : BOX DRAWINGS DOUBLE UP AND LEFT
189= ╜ U+255C : BOX DRAWINGS UP DOUBLE AND LEFT SINGLE
190= ╛ U+255B : BOX DRAWINGS UP SINGLE AND LEFT DOUBLE
191= ┐ U+2510 : BOX DRAWINGS LIGHT DOWN AND LEFT
192= └ U+2514 : BOX DRAWINGS LIGHT UP AND RIGHT
193= ┴ U+2534 : BOX DRAWINGS LIGHT UP AND HORIZONTAL
194= ┬ U+252C : BOX DRAWINGS LIGHT DOWN AND HORIZONTAL
195= ├ U+251C : BOX DRAWINGS LIGHT VERTICAL AND RIGHT
196= ─ U+2500 : BOX DRAWINGS LIGHT HORIZONTAL
197= ┼ U+253C : BOX DRAWINGS LIGHT VERTICAL AND HORIZONTAL
198= ╞ U+255E : BOX DRAWINGS VERTICAL SINGLE AND RIGHT DOUBLE
199= ╟ U+255F : BOX DRAWINGS VERTICAL DOUBLE AND RIGHT SINGLE
200= ╚ U+255A : BOX DRAWINGS DOUBLE UP AND RIGHT
201= ╔ U+2554 : BOX DRAWINGS DOUBLE DOWN AND RIGHT
202= ╩ U+2569 : BOX DRAWINGS DOUBLE UP AND HORIZONTAL
203= ╦ U+2566 : BOX DRAWINGS DOUBLE DOWN AND HORIZONTAL
204= ╠ U+2560 : BOX DRAWINGS DOUBLE VERTICAL AND RIGHT
205= ═ U+2550 : BOX DRAWINGS DOUBLE HORIZONTAL
206= ╬ U+256C : BOX DRAWINGS DOUBLE VERTICAL AND HORIZONTAL
207= ╧ U+2567 : BOX DRAWINGS UP SINGLE AND HORIZONTAL DOUBLE
208= ╨ U+2568 : BOX DRAWINGS UP DOUBLE AND HORIZONTAL SINGLE
209= ╤ U+2564 : BOX DRAWINGS DOWN SINGLE AND HORIZONTAL DOUBLE
210= ╥ U+2565 : BOX DRAWINGS DOWN DOUBLE AND HORIZONTAL SINGLE
211= ╙ U+2559 : BOX DRAWINGS UP DOUBLE AND RIGHT SINGLE
212= ╘ U+2558 : BOX DRAWINGS UP SINGLE AND RIGHT DOUBLE
213= ╒ U+2552 : BOX DRAWINGS DOWN SINGLE AND RIGHT DOUBLE
214= ╓ U+2553 : BOX DRAWINGS DOWN DOUBLE AND RIGHT SINGLE
215= ╫ U+256B : BOX DRAWINGS VERTICAL DOUBLE AND HORIZONTAL SINGLE
216= ╪ U+256A : BOX DRAWINGS VERTICAL SINGLE AND HORIZONTAL DOUBLE
217= ┘ U+2518 : BOX DRAWINGS LIGHT UP AND LEFT
218= ┌ U+250C : BOX DRAWINGS LIGHT DOWN AND RIGHT
219= █ U+2588 : FULL BLOCK
220= ▄ U+2584 : LOWER HALF BLOCK
221= ▌ U+258C : LEFT HALF BLOCK
222= ▐ U+2590 : RIGHT HALF BLOCK
223= ▀ U+2580 : UPPER HALF BLOCK
224= α U+03B1 : GREEK SMALL LETTER ALPHA
225= ß U+00DF : LATIN SMALL LETTER SHARP S
226= Γ U+0393 : GREEK CAPITAL LETTER GAMMA
227= π U+03C0 : GREEK SMALL LETTER PI
228= Σ U+03A3 : GREEK CAPITAL LETTER SIGMA
229= σ U+03C3 : GREEK SMALL LETTER SIGMA
230= µ U+00B5 : MICRO SIGN
231= τ U+03C4 : GREEK SMALL LETTER TAU
232= Φ U+03A6 : GREEK CAPITAL LETTER PHI
233= Θ U+0398 : GREEK CAPITAL LETTER THETA
234= Ω U+03A9 : GREEK CAPITAL LETTER OMEGA
235= δ U+03B4 : GREEK SMALL LETTER DELTA
236= ∞ U+221E : INFINITY
237= φ U+03C6 : GREEK SMALL LETTER PHI
238= ε U+03B5 : GREEK SMALL LETTER EPSILON
239= ∩ U+2229 : INTERSECTION
240= ≡ U+2261 : IDENTICAL TO
241= ± U+00B1 : PLUS-MINUS SIGN
242= ≥ U+2265 : GREATER-THAN OR EQUAL TO
243= ≤ U+2264 : LESS-THAN OR EQUAL TO
244= ⌠ U+2320 : TOP HALF INTEGRAL
245= ⌡ U+2321 : BOTTOM HALF INTEGRAL
246= ÷ U+00F7 : DIVISION SIGN
247= ≈ U+2248 : ALMOST EQUAL TO
248= ° U+00B0 : DEGREE SIGN
249= ∙ U+2219 : BULLET OPERATOR
250= · U+00B7 : MIDDLE DOT
251= √ U+221A : SQUARE ROOT
252= ⁿ U+207F : SUPERSCRIPT LATIN SMALL LETTER N
253= ² U+00B2 : SUPERSCRIPT TWO
254= ■ U+25A0 : BLACK SQUARE
255=   U+00A0 : NO-BREAK SPACE

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