The population of Australia at the time of its "invasion" by England in 1788 is estimated at perhaps being about 1 million though it may well have been less. The population around the Sydney region was estimated as "about 1500". From the beginning, instructions from England were to "establish good relations with the Indigenous people" in order to "gain useful knowledge of the area". And all reports of Governor Phillip show that, yes, he endeavoured to do just that, ordering that the Aboriginal peoples must be "well-treated, and that anyone killing Aboriginal people (without due cause - Steve) would be hanged". Click here for this article about Governor Phillip's life. Click here for the attempts at peace by the British Government in Sydney and in the other colonies during the next 100 years, by establishing "protected reserves". No, no simple answers about how people can live together, particularly when they have different historical backgrounds — James 4. Not without God's help.
Anyway , beginning in 1788 all the initial settlements in Australia were ruled from Sydney as penal settlements or "prison camps", with land grants and leases offered to convicts as they completed their sentences. Each Governor was empowered to grant land to these men. Every male was entitled to 30 acres, an additional 20 acres if married, and 10 acres for each child with him in the settlement at the time of the grant. To encourage free settlers to the colony, Governor Phillip received additional Instructions entitling non-commissioned Marine Officers to 100 acres and privates to 50 acres over and above the quantity allowed to convicts. Other settlers coming to the colony were also to be given grants. Click here for some background on what was being used for money.
There were no (or minimal) land sales before 1831. Transportation to Sydney ended in 1840 as the colony opened up to free settlement, land sales (by auction), and subdivision. Self-government in New South Wales came in 1855.
Independent colonies opened up under British rule, starting with Hobart in Van Diemen's land in the south.
Over the waters from Sydney back in 1834, James Busby, the official British Resident in New Zealand, drafted a document known as the "Declaration of (sovereign) Independence" of New Zealand which he and 34 northern Maori chiefs signed at Waitangi on 28 October 1835. By 1839, 52 chiefs had signed. In 1840, via the Treaty of Waitangi, New Zealand became a British colony then in 1853 a self-governing British state alongside New South Wales. Click here for further background to this document. Back in 1769-1770 James Cook, followed by English missionaries, had started transcribing the Maori language into the English script, a development embraced enthusiastically by Maoris during the 1820s. Now in 1862, the first electric telegraph line was built, starting at Christchurch in the South Island. In 1872 it reached Auckland, then in 1876 a submarine cable was laid to Sydney, and thus to the rest of the world.
Back to Australia. Federation in 1901 now declared Australia's colonies to be self-governing states inside the Commonwealth of Australia, with the Australian constitution recognising the principal of "separation of powers" i.e. having three branches of government 1. Parliament: Making laws 2. Prime Minister and the Cabinet: Enforcing laws 3. High Court Judges: Interpreting laws in light of the Constitution, with Parliament always subject to the Constitution. The Constitution cannot be changed by an Act of Parliament alone, a referendum of the people is necessary.
Click here for further background to this Australian system of government.
In 1942, Australia changed its status from that of a "dominion" inside the British Empire to that of a "member" inside the British Commonwealth of Nations. In 1946, England dropped the word "British" in reference to this statutory body, in preparation for upcoming membership by the Republic of India.
Back to the 1800s. As far as “becoming free” of Sydney’s oversight and control went, dates of independence followed by self-government in these previous colonies were as follows:
click here to read some of South Australia and Adelaide's history, famous for a number of firsts and equal firsts, including secret ballots and the legalising of trade unions.
click here for Hobart (Tasmania) and Melbourne (Victoria)
Ok. Now for Brisbane and Queensland, initially the Moreton Bay settlement.
From: Stephen Williamson
Sent: Friday, May 04, 2012 7:44 PM
To: Amy Williamson
Subject: indigenous, aboriginal, and indigent
Let’s see if I can summarize those etymologies with appropriate hyperlinks
Aboriginal – From the beginning – the original family/tribe/community/nation race
Ethnic – Band of people living together – the current family/community/nation race – not an outsider or foreigner
Ethics/Ethical and Mores/Morals – Customs or character of a person or people. Ethical is from the Greek Ethos, Moral is from the Latin Mos/Moris, but basically the same word. Interestingly, according to this Greek Dictionary of New Testament words, the word ethnic is probably also derived from this word: click here Ethos/Etho.
Indigenous – Born in the country – not a foreigner. However, because nearly 98% of us here in Australia are such recent arrivals (click here regarding Australian citizenship — first ceremony wasn't until 1949) the Australian Government defines indigenous Australian as either Aboriginal, Torres Strait Islander (or a mixture of the two). According to Wikipedia – click here – the number in 2001 that traced their ancestry back to one of those groups was 458,520.
http://espace.library.uq.edu.au /eserv/UQ:212643 /s00855804 1962 1963 7 1 72.pdf
"Brisbane, my present capital, must resemble what Boston and the other Puritan towns of New England were at the close of the last century. In a population of 7,000 we have fourteen churches, thirteen hotels and twelve policemen. The leading inhabitants are a hard-headed set of English and Scottish merchants and manufacturers." Writing to the Secretary of State for the Colonies he also described himself as impressed by the air of prosperity. "Distress and pauperism, those comprehensive terms so frequently used in European politics, are unknown here."
Despite this favourable view, it is recorded that one other visitor at another time was not so impressed. When he saw the hotels, he rubbed his hands with glee, saying this was the place for him to start in business. But then he counted the churches — and returned at once to Sydney.
1824-1825: First settled with 45 males and 2 females. It steadily increased, reaching 1,241 in 1831. The principal object of the local authorities appears to have been the perfect isolation of the settlement (approach to which, within fifty miles, was strictly prohibited to Europeans), and this so far as they could, they vigorously maintained.
So naturally there were no shops or banks. Fresh water came from a creek which rose near the present Brisbane Grammar School on Gregory Terrace and flowed down the site of Roma Street Parkland to the site of the present City Hall. A small reservoir dammed this creek and conveyed water through hollow hardwood logs. Slab huts were quickly built for accommodation and the convicts set to work growing grain. Corn, the first successful staple crop, was grown at South Brisbane, directly opposite the main settlement. A farm was developed on land known as Eagle Farm.
1828: Limestone Station (later renamed as Ipswich) provided the source of Brisbane's mortar for the convict barracks. Other stone and brick buildings built at this time included the convict hospital, the Commissariat Store, still standing, situated between present day William Street and the Queens Wharf Road, and the Windmill on Wickham Terrace, built to grind corn.
The convicts' hours of work were sunrise to sunset with two long breaks, one at 8am for breakfast and one at midday. On Sundays, they were mustered for a church service. Hundreds of convicts fled the stern conditions (of public lashings and at times executions) and escaped into the bush. The convict settlement was gradually reduced during the 1830's as the authorities prepared to open the Moreton Bay region for free settlement.
1834: With numerous stone structures now built, the Moreton Bay settlement is declared to be a town having the name of Brisbane being on the Brisbane River — that name had been given to the river by John Oxley when he explored it in 1823, Sir Thomas Brisbane being the governor of NSW at that time.
1839: Penal settlement closed with many convicts returning to Sydney. Click here for further details of this time.
1842: Brisbane was officially proclaimed a free settlement on
The recorded population of Moreton Bay area is now 4000 Aborigines and 2257 migrants. Moreton Bay Courier makes frequent mention of local indigenous people who were working and living in the district.
1850: The first bank, the Bank of NSW opens a branch for general (trading) bank business. During the 1850s the Commissariat Store, soon to be called the Colonial Store, has its first floor turned into an immigration barracks, and in the 1860s a police barracks.
1827: As mentioned previously, in 1827 a Convict Hospital was built on North Quay between Adelaide and Ann Streets in this tiny convict town. In 1832 its accommodation was extended, a cottage was built for the Medical Officer, and a Military Hospital was built adjacent to it. It subsequently became the Survey Office.
1849: After free settlement, the first Public Hospital in Brisbane, the Moreton Bay Hospital, was established on 12 January, 1849. It was this old Convict Hospital on North Quay and was grossly overcrowded trying to cater to the growing population of post convict era Brisbane and surrounding areas. The hospital operated on subscriptions from those in the community who could afford to give. In turn these subscribers were issued with tickets which would entitle the bearer to medical treatment at the hospital. Those who could not afford the subscriptions and needing treatment went in search of tickets from benevolent subscribers. Another source of funds was the fines levied in the Police Courts.
1856: Brisbane's non-indigenous population approached 6,000. The name of Moreton Bay Hospital was changed to the Brisbane Hospital as other hospitals in various towns opened. The opening of other hospitals meant that the subscriptions base dwindled and a call went out for more local subscribers. Epidemics of diseases brought in from the tropics swept through Brisbane such as malaria, dengue fever, typhus, typhoid, amoebic dysentery and smallpox. Gunshot wounds and knife injuries from numerous bar and street brawls requiring surgery, were on the rise. In the 1860s tropical diseases were introduced by the unfortunate South Sea Islanders or Kanakas, who were 'Blackbirded' and brought to Brisbane and northern Queensland where they were forced to work on cotton plantations and cane fields. The practice was outlawed by the Queensland Government in the 1890s and most Islanders were sent home.
But it was a wild time all right. Click here re Patrick Mayne, the "mad" Irish butcher of Queen Street, at his death possibly one of the richest men in Brisbane.
1867: More than 35,000 flocked to Brisbane between 1860-1865, following separation from NSW in 1859 combined with the development of a proper immigration scheme, but with no support from the previous New South Wales government, the building of a larger hospital was delayed until the Queensland Government accumulated sufficient funds of its own. The new hospital was completed in 1867. Standing on land at Herston, the facility contained Fever Wards, long low blocks located just behind the main building. The patients were moved from the hospital in George Street to the new Brisbane Hospital on 8th January, 1867. There were complaints that the new hospital was located too far out of the town and would have been better sited at Spring Hill or Petrie Terrace. The first nurses graduated from the hospital in 1888.
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List of mayors and lord mayors of Brisbane
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Premier of Queensland
1859: The Municipality of Brisbane was gazetted on 25 May 1859 and proclaimed by the Governor of New South Wales on 7 September 1859. The first local government area in Queensland, Brisbane was the only one incorporated prior to the establishment of Queensland as a separate colony. Its boundaries covered the Brisbane City area, and Fortitude Valley. The first election for this municipal council was held on 13 October 1859. There were 37 candidates for the nine positions on council. John Petrie, a notable builder and stonemason, was unanimously elected first mayor. The first aldermen were men who had helped to establish Brisbane as an important settlement in the north.
At the same time, Sir George Ferguson Bowen was appointed the first Queensland governor. He arrived at Brisbane from England on 10 December 1859 and brought Robert Herbert with him as his private secretary. On the day of the governor's arrival, Herbert was gazetted as colonial secretary with Ratcliffe Pring as attorney-general. These with the governor formed an executive council to which additions were made afterwards. At the election held early in 1860 Herbert was returned unopposed for one of the Leichhardt seats in the Queensland Legislative Assembly and became the first premier of Queensland. He showed himself to be a good leader, holding office from December 1859 to February 1866.
https://en.wikipedia.org /wiki/Outhouse#Australia and New Zealand
https://en.wikipedia.org /wiki/Water supply and sanitation in Australia#Brisbane and Gold Coast
Click here for background and photos of Brisbane's early water supply, in the days when people without rain tanks purchased their drinking water in casks.
Click here for today's situation, with twelve dams servicing Brisbane and South East Queensland, having a combined total capacity of 2 trillion litres.
1863: The Qld Government commissioned the Brisbane Council, via a loan of £50,000 to construct waterworks and lay down pipes from the water supply at Enoggera Creek.
1866: Just as the work was nearing completion, the Qld Government took control away from the Municipal Council and appointed the Brisbane Board of Waterworks to run the service.
1902: Brisbane had an outbreak of bubonic plague which encouraged agitation for sewerage.
1909: Brisbane Board of Waterworks replaced by a newly constituted Metropolitan Water and Sewerage Board (MW&SB), to commence sewerage implementation.
1912: Brisbane's first water filtration plant installed at Enoggera dam.
1923: Finally, first sewerage connection in Brisbane — to the MW&SB office.
1925: The Qld Government now formed the Brisbane City Council amalgamating the two cities Brisbane and South Brisbane, six towns — Toowong Ithaca (i.e.Paddington and Red Hill) Windsor Hamilton Sandgate and Wynnum, nine shires — Moggill Taringa Enoggera Kedron Toombul north of the river, Balmoral Belmont Coorparoo Stephens (i.e.Annerley) south of the river as well as part of the shires of Yeerongpilly and Tingalpa.
It reduced the number of aldermen over this area from more than 200 down to 20.
1928: Brisbane City Council formally took over responsibility for MW&SB assets.
1935: Qld Govt starts construction building Lake Somerset on the Stanley River (south of Maleny), a flood mitigation reservoir (60% of its capacity), and having the other 40% provide for 380 billion litres of drinking water. Due to WW2, it wasn't until 1959 that all work related to the dam, including its hydroelectric power station was complete. Two further dams followed, North Pine by 1976 and Wivenhoe by 1985.
1961: But in this year, Brisbane was still a city with no town planning, many unpaved streets, limited water supply, few areas with sewers — with most residents having to rely on having an outhouse or a septic tank. Through the 1960s Lord Mayor Clem Jones successfully led the council to develop a town plan, seal roads, improve drainage and connect sewers to most of the city.
1979: Brisbane's sewerage scheme essentially completed.
2010: The Qld Government resumes control of Brisbane Water, commissioning Qld Urban Utilities on behalf of SEQ Water to deliver retail water supply and wastewater services to Brisbane and South East Queensland.
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Australian telegraphic history#Queensland
1861: Queensland's separation from New South Wales created a position for Superintendent of Telegraphs which was filled by W.J Cracknell, the brother of the New South Wales Superintendent. Tenders were called for a line from Brisbane to the NSW border via Ipswich and Warwick. It was completed to Ipswich in April 1861 and working to the border by November 1861. This connected to a recently completed line from Sydney. Now four colonies were connected: Brisbane, Sydney, Melbourne and Adelaide. Lines were pushed out from Brisbane north to Bowen, Rockhampton, reached Port Denison in 1866, and Cardwell in June 1869. Perth was connected the same year.
1872: Connected to England click here via Adelaide / Darwin. Before the telegraph, news and mail could take three months to reach England, the telegraph reduced this to around seven hours. As the telegraph spread provincial and city newspapers published sections by-lined 'by Electric Telegraph'.
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Rail transport in South East Queensland
|1865:||Ipswich-Grandchester (narrow gauge 106.7cm) first railway line opened with a railway bridge over the Bremer River|
|1871:||Ipswich-Warwick (via Toowoomba)|
|1881:||Ipswich-Stanthorpe (via Toowoomba)|
|1888:||Ipswich-Wallangarra (Qld border) then change trains to wider gauge (143.5cm) and so on to Sydney|
|1988:||One hundred years later, Wallangarra became a terminus when Tenterfield-Wallangarra line stops running|
|1875:||Roma Street linked up with Ipswich via Indooroopilly Railway Bridge|
|1891:||Roma Street-Gympie (and thus to Maryborough) and so on into the north|
|Third, South Brisbane-Ipswich and South Brisbane-Beenleigh.|
Note, there was to be no railway bridge joining Brisbane and South Brisbane for nearly 100 years.
|1884:||Woolloongabba-Corinda rail freight link via Dutton Park and so on to Ipswich|
Same Year Woolloongabba-Beenleigh
Click here for more info on South Brisbane's rapid development at this time
|1964:||Beenleigh became a terminus when Southport and Tweed Heads lines stop running|
|Fourth, South Brisbane-Sydney|
|1891:||New station built in South Brisbane having a second wider gauge for NSW|
|1905:||Railway line to Sydney started closer to the coastline instead of travelling via Warwick|
Ran as a dual gauge alongside parts of the Beenleigh line to Acacia Ridge, changing to a standard (wider) gauge towards Grafton
|1978:||New Terminus in Roma Street when Merivale Bridge is finally built with a dual-gauge line|
|Lastly, Electric Train Service Brisbane-Gold Coast|
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Victoria Bridge, Brisbane
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/William Jolly Bridge (Grey Street)
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Walter Taylor Bridge (Indooroopilly)
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sir Leo Hielscher Bridges (Gateway)
|1865:||First was a temporary wooden bridge built between Brisbane and South Brisbane (that used tolls) while Victoria Bridge was being built.|
Awkwardly in 1866, the Bank of Queensland which was financing the loan to the town council for the bridge, failed, and work stopped for a time.
|1874:||Then, Victoria Bridge built (privately financed, with tolls to 1877).|
|1875:||Indooroopilly Railway Bridge (Albert Bridge)|
|1876:||Victoria Bridge taken over by Qld Govt in 1876.|
|1885:||Leased by the government to private company who provided a horse-drawn tram service. Eighteen tramcars imported from America. In the words of the "Brisbane Courier" of the day they "are constructed of cedar and mahogany, highly polished, and are fitted with all the latest improvements. They are mounted on steel springs, making the motion almost imperceptible." Drawn by two horses, the single deck cars seat 16 passengers and the double deckers 40. Six and a half miles of double track constructed from Woolloongabba to Breakfast Creek with branches to the Exhibition Building and to New Farm.
Photo of Victoria Bridge 1890
|1893:||Bridge demolished in 1893 floods. Temporary bridge rebuilt. Swept away again in 1896 after another deluge.|
|1897:||Second, more permanent Bridge built. Included in the rebuilding, an electric tram service.
Photo of Victoria Bridge (circa 1906)
|1932:||William Jolly (Grey Street) Bridge built.|
|1936:||Walter Taylor (Indooroopilly) Bridge. Tolls until 1960's.|
|1940:||Story Bridge built.|
|1969:||Victoria Bridge rebuilt (yet again).|
|1986:||Gateway Bridge built (with tolls).|
The Royal National Agricultural and Industrial Association of Queensland (RNA) was established in 1875 with Governor Sir William Cairns as its President. Bowen Park was chosen in January 1876 as the site for the first Show. The 'Intercolonial Exhibition of 1876', held from August 22-26 proved a great success. A public holiday was declared and an estimated 15,000-17,000 people attended the opening day - a great feat at a time when the total population of Brisbane was just 20,600.
The RNA Showgrounds now become the centre of the city's social activities-musical and drama groups, football, cricket, lacrosse, athletics and cycling all had headquarters on grounds. In 1887, the Main Pavilion (corner of Bowen Bridge Road and Gregory Terrace) was destroyed by fire. In 1891, it was replaced with a new brick building, containing 1,300,000 bricks and completed in 23 weeks. 300 men were constantly at work during its construction. This building was equipped with a huge pipe organ by Wallis and Co of London, though it was later moved to the Brisbane City Hall after its completion in 1930.
http://espace.library.uq.edu.au /eserv/UQ:207895/s18378366 1944 3 3 209.pdf
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Trams in Brisbane
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/1912 Brisbane general strike
|1897:||Private company. First electric tram runs along Stanley Street South Brisbane on June 21 with service to Queen Street coming 12 days later. Over the next 25 years tram lines extend to Toowong and Kedron north of the river, Dutton Park and Greenslopes south of the river, with Mr Badger, the company owner, inaugurating band concerts and picture show outings on summer evenings.|
|1912:||General Strike called in Brisbane on 30th January after Mr Badger had refused tram workers the right to wear their union badges to work and dismissed the workers who refused to comply. Escalated rapidly with 25,000 workers marching through Brisbane on 31st January in protest. Within a few days the Strike Committee became an alternative government, with State Government departments and private employers needing the Strike Committee's permission to carry out any work. Lasted five weeks. The conservative Denham State Government immediately won an ensuing election on a "Law and Order" platform and passed the Industrial Peace Act of 1912 that ushered in compulsory arbitration specifically to deter strikes in essential services. Employees of the tramway company who struck were sacked with the tramway company refusing to ever re-hire the workers. Yes, a standoff with everyone pretty cranky.|
|1922||Qld State Government oversees purchasing of the company with its infrastructure for just over £1,000,000, and then reinstates these sacked workers.|
|1925:||As mentioned previously, the Qld Government now formed the Brisbane City Council amalgamating the two cities Brisbane and South Brisbane, six towns — Toowong Ithaca (i.e.Paddington and Red Hill) Windsor Hamilton Sandgate and Wynnum, nine shires — Moggill Taringa Enoggera Kedron Toombul north of the river, Balmoral Belmont Coorparoo Stephens (i.e.Annerley) south of the river as well as part of the shires of Yeerongpilly and Tingalpa.|
Citywide electric Tram services greatly expanded. Interestingly, badges on tram and then bus uniforms — the cause of the strike — were forbidden and were to remain forbidden until 1980.
|1926:||Extended to Holland Park.|
|1951:||To Mt Gravatt.|
It was NSW Governor Fitzroy who set up the National Education Board in Sydney in 1848. Apparently a lot of what he did was based on the multi-denominational National Schools in Ireland (set up in 1831), and he brought out a large number of Irish readers (there not being any Australian reading books printed at the time) .
Click here, re our first Queensland readers.
In early 1860, the Board opened the Brisbane National School in Adelaide Street in a new building close to what is now Anzac Square. The first Headmaster was John Rendall and on the opening day the attendance was 50 boys and 8 girls. It was conducted as a mixed school until 14 August 1860 when the girl pupils were (temporarily) moved.
On that day the Brisbane Central Girls' School was opened as the girls and infants department under the Headmistress Margaret Berry. This school was first held in an old wooden chapel situated at the corner of Ann and Creek Streets. In December 1862, the school moved back to that building in Adelaide Street.
At that time, the Boys School — now also known as Brisbane Normal School with a training school for teachers — moved next door to a new building on the corner of Adelaide and Edward Streets.
In 1870, fees to these new national schools were abolished. While there seems to have been little regularity in the amount (or collection) of these fees, their collection (which could be as high as one shilling per week per child) seems to have also encouraged irregularity of attendance.
In 1875, the same year as England, primary education for children was made compulsory from ages 6 to 12. The year in which you turned 6 then generally became Grade 1, and the year you turned 13 generally became Grade 8, though children could be one year older. Note too, this compulsory provision was not fully implemented until 1900.
Current Queensland laws now require you to be at school until you complete Grade 10 or turn 16, whichever comes sooner.
Brisbane State High School has its foundations in 1913 when headmasters in various metropolitan state schools were asked to nominate 76 boys and girls for free admission to a new Central Technical College High School — along with a further 70 paying students — who thus made up its first year's enrolment.
Marianne Bryden, an educationist with many years experience, was supervisor for three years. Classrooms were provided at the
On 1 January 1920, the Brisbane Central Secondary School was established at Brisbane Normal School in Adelaide Street with Isaac Waddle as headmaster. It combined the secondary departments of the Brisbane Central Boys School and the Brisbane Central Girls school. The scope of its instruction though was limited to studies necessary for the Junior Public Examination. During the year, the name was changed to Brisbane Junior State High School.
In 1921 it took over administering the students at the College, also amalgamating the High Top at Wynnum State School. It now reconstituted as the Brisbane State High School, having its curriculum extended to include Senior Public Examination and Matriculation subjects. In 1925, with a new building now finished, it shifted to its current site in Musgrave Street, South Brisbane.
In 1927 the Brisbane Normal School (Adelaide Street) closed for demolition. All of its primary teachers and students were now at Leichhardt Street State School, built back in 1875. The Leichhardt Street school also took over the Normal School's role of training teachers, becoming unofficially known as the Central Practising School. In 1954, the school was officially renamed as Brisbane Central State School.
The Valley Pool is the home of the powerhouse Commercial Swimming Club (founded 1903) that spawned Kieren Perkins, Libby Trickett, Susie O’Neill, Hayley Lewis, Samantha Riley and many other Olympians.
Click here for an interview with two of its recent members: Bronte and Cate Campbell — currently ranked number one and three in the world in the 100m freestyle, and one and two in the 50m freestyle.
1986: 700,000 still
2012: just over 1 million (est.)
** End of Report