History of China (with censuses)
There are traditionally four historical capitals of China
- In the West, Chang'an also known as Zongzhou, Xianyang and modern day Xian during the years 1045BC - 907AD.
- In the East, Luoyang, also known as Chengzhou and Dongdu ("eastern capital"), during much of the same period
- In the South, Nanjing ("southern capital") became known as Jianye in 229AD, and as Jiankang in 317AD, when it was made the Capital of the Jin Dynasty, the first time a Chinese dynastic capital moved to southern China.
The city was razed to the ground by the Sui Dynasty in 589AD who subsequently made Luoyang their capital.
In 1368, the first emperor of the Ming dynasty renamed the city Yingtian, rebuilt it and made it the dynastic capital, up until 1421 when the capital was relocated to the north, to Beijing.
- In the North, Beijing ("northern capital") was given that name by the Ming Dynasty in 1403. Originally known as Ji, about 1000BC, it has had numerous names.
During the Liao dynasty (907AD-1125AD) it was Liao Nanjing during the years it was their southern capital (1012-1122).
After Kublai Khan (Genghis Khan's grandson) defeated the Song Dynasty at the Battle of Yamen (Hong Kong) in 1279, Beijing has ruled over China much of the time ever since.
Main Body showing individual Dynasties along with their Census-taking
based on www.thoughtco.com plus links to Wikipedia.
Censuses were taken as a rule by ancient rulers beginning in the Zhou Dynasty, but what the rulers were counting is somewhat in doubt. Some censuses refer to the number of persons as "mouths" and the number of households as "doors." But, conflicting figures are given for the same dates and it's possible that the numbers refer not to the total population, but taxpayers, or people who were available for either military or corvιe (enforced) labor duties.
The Xia dynasty is the first known dynasty in China, but even its existence is doubted by some scholars in China and elsewhere. The first census was said by Han dynasty historians to have been taken by Yu the Great in about 2000 BC, with a total of 13,553,923 people or possibly households. Probably Han Dynasty propaganda.
No surviving censuses.
Censuses became normal instruments of public administration, and several rulers ordered them at regular intervals, but the statistics are somewhat in doubt
- 1000 BC: 13,714,923 persons
- 680 BC: 11,841,923 persons
The Qin Dynasty was the first time China was unified under a centralized government. With the ending of wars, iron implements, farming techniques, and irrigation were developed. No surviving censuses.
About 2 AD, population censuses in China became statistically useful for the entire united mainland.
- Western Han 2 AD: persons per household: 4.9
- Eastern Han 57156 AD, persons per household: 4.95.8
- 2 AD: 59,594,978 persons, 12,233,062 households
- 156 AD: 56,486,856 persons, 10,677,960 households
Six Dynasties (Period of Disunity) 220589 AD
Liu Sung State, 464 AD, 5.3 million persons, 900,000 households
606 AD: persons per household 5.2, 46,019,956 persons, 8,907,536 households
- 634643 AD: 12,000,000 persons, 2,992,779 households
- 707755 AD: persons per household 5.7-6.0
- 754 AD: 52,880,488 persons, 7,662,800 tax payers
- 755 AD: 52,919,309 persons, 8,208,321 tax payers
- 845 AD: 4,955,151 households
After the fall of the Tang dynasty, China was split into several states and consistent population data for the entire county is not available.
- 10061223 AD: persons per household 1.4-2.6
- 1006 AD: 15,280,254 persons, 7,417,507 households
- 1063 AD: 26,421,651 persons, 12,462,310 households
- 1103 AD: 45,981,845 persons, 20,524,065 households
- 1160 AD: 19,229,008 persons, 11,575,753 households
- 1223 AD: 28,320,085 persons, 12,670,801 households
- 1290-1292 AD: persons per household 4.5-4.6
- 1290 AD: 58,834,711 persons, 13,196,206 households
- 1330 AD: 13,400,699 households
- 13811626 AD: persons per household 4.8-7.1
- 1381 AD: 59,873,305 persons, 10,654,362 households
- 1450 AD: 53,403,954 persons, 9,588,234 households
- 1520 AD: 60,606,220 persons, 9,399,979 households
- 16201626 AD: 51,655,459 persons, 9,835,416 households
In 1740, the Qing dynasty emperor ordered that population statistics be compiled annually, a system known as "pao-chia," which required each household to keep a tablet by their door with a list of all the members of the household. Later those tablets were kept in regional offices.
- 1751 AD: 207 million persons
- 1781 AD: 270 million persons
- 1791 AD: 294 million persons
- 1811 AD: 347 million persons
- 1821 AD: 344 million persons
- 1831 AD: 383 million persons
- 1841 AD: 400 million persons
- 1851 AD: 417 million persons
Succeeded by the Republic of China (1912-1949) a time of short-lived leaders and civil war, followed by the People's Republic of China in 1949. The country's population has exploded since 1949 from about 555 million to 1.4 billion.
** End of Report