PRECIOUS METALS

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How many tons of silver and gold have been mined

Gold 200,000 total tonnes (or just under) have been mined worldwide, about 2,500 - 3,000 tonnes yearly

Silver 1½ million total tonnes have been mined worldwide

Copper 19 million tonnes mined in just the year 2015

Palladium atomic weight 46, harder than Platinum
Platinum atomic weight 78, harder than Silver and Gold (maybe 9490 total tonnes mined, US reserves 900 tonnes in 2017)

The Mohs Scale of Hardness for Metals

Here is a list of the hardness grades for some of the metals that you are most likely to come across in your everyday life, especially when dealing with jewelry:

  1. Lead: 1.5
  2. Tin: 1.5
  3. Zinc: 2.5
  4. Gold: 2.5-3
  5. Silver: 2.5-3
  6. Aluminum: 2.5-3
  7. Copper: 3
  8. Brass (copper and zinc): 3
  9. Bronze (copper and tin): 3
  10. Nickel: 4
  11. Platinum: 4-4.5
  12. Steel (iron and carbon): 4-4.5
  13. Iron: 4.5
  14. Palladium: 4.75
  15. Rhodium: 6
  16. Titanium: 6
  17. Hardened steel: 7-8
  18. Tungsten: 7.5
  19. Tungsten carbide (tungsten and carbon): 8.5-9

Tungsten has the highest melting point of all metals at an astounding 6,191.6 degrees Fahrenheit. Tungsten is rated at about a 9 on the Mohs scale of hardness. A diamond, which is the hardest substance on earth, is rated at a 10. Tungsten carbide is about 2 or 3 times harder than titanium and cobalt chrome.

Reactivity series - Wikipedia

These are, from higher to lower reactivity going down the list, the 8 least reactive metals, with Silver, Gold and Platinum at the very end.
Metal Ion Reactivity Extraction
Antimony Sb Sb3+ may react with some strong oxidizing acids heat or physical extraction
Bismuth Bi Bi3+
Copper Cu Cu2+
Tungsten W W3+
Mercury Hg Hg2+
Silver Ag Ag+
Gold Au Au3+
Platinum Pt Pt4+

GEMSTONES IN SCRIPTURE

Found in the High Priest Breastplate, set in gold in their settings with the names of the 12 tribes according to their birth. Names in Exodus 28 and Revelation 21

Exodus No. ▲▼TribeGemstone DescriptionRevelation No.
1. Top RowReubenSardius (Redness), a red gem and probably a ruby, (from the mineral corundum-Aluminium Oxide) with a hardness of 9 on the Mohs scale.6
2.SimeonTopaz, a pale yellowish gem, (from a silicate of Aluminium and Fluorine) with a hardness of 8 on the Mohs scale.9
3.LeviCarbuncle, a bright, flashing stone, like an emerald according to Josephus (from the mineral Beryl-Beryllium Aluminium Cyclosilicate) with a hardness of 8 on the Mohs scale. Not recorded as a separate stone in Revelation 21
4. Second RowJudahEmerald, a green stone, (from the mineral Beryl-Beryllium Aluminium Cyclosilicate) with a hardness of 8 on the Mohs scale.4
5.DanSapphire, a blue and yellow stone (from the mineral corundum-Aluminium Oxide) with a hardness of 9 on the Mohs scale.2
6.NaphtaliDiamond, a white stone, (from pure Carbon) with a hardness of 10 on the Mohs scale. The Hebrew word is "Yah-halom" from "Halam" - hammer or strike down as used in the story of Jael and Sisera. Not recorded in Revelation 21
7. Third RowGadLigure, possibly a jacinth (an orange-red variety of zircon) with a hardness of 7 on the Mohs scale.11
8.AsherAgate, (a variety of misty-grey chalcedony, quartz-silicate) with a hardness of 7 on the Mohs scale.3
9.IssacharAmethyst, (a violet quartz-silicate) with a hardness of 7 on the Mohs scale.12
10. Fourth RowZebulunBeryl, an aquamarine gemstone (Beryllium Aluminium Cyclosilicate) with a hardness of 8 on the Mohs scale.8
11.JosephOnyx, a quartz-silicate gemstone, often banded as black and white with a hardness of 7 on the Mohs scale. Sardonyx (red and white) is Stone 5 in Revelation 21.5
12.BenjaminJasper, a quartz-silicate gemstone, usually red or brown with a hardness of 7 on the Mohs scale.1

Two additional Stones in Revelation 21

Chrysolite (a golden-green stone, from the mineral olivine-magnesium iron silicate) with a hardness of 7 on the Mohs scale. Stone 7 in Revelation 21

Chrysoprase (a gold leek-green quartz-silicate) with a hardness of 7 on the Mohs scale. Stone 10 in Revelation 21

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