Stoicism, Epicureanism, and Eclecticism

Zeno of Citium (334BC – 262BC) was founder of the Stoic school of philosophy, which he taught in Athens from about 300 BC. Based on the moral ideas of the Cynics, Stoicism laid great emphasis on goodness and peace of mind gained from living a life of virtue in accordance with nature.
Cynics As reasoning creatures, people can gain happiness by rigorous training and by living in a way which is natural for themselves, rejecting all conventional desires for wealth, power, and fame, and even flouting conventions openly and derisively in public. Instead, they were to lead a simple life free from all possessions.

Alternatively Epicureanism by Epicurus (341BC - 270BC) claimed that we should seek to maximize our own pleasure (mainly by removing pain from our lives).

Let’s now examine their differences.
While Stoicism claimed that living justly and virtuously is the highest good that one can experience, and that pleasure and pain are to be treated indifferently,
Pleasure, as Epicurus regarded it, was the “beginning and end of the blessed life.” And you’ve probably also heard of the famous garden of the Epicurean school and its motto as inscribed on the gate: “Stranger, you would do good to stay awhile, for here the highest good is pleasure.” He taught that the root of all human neurosis is death denial and the tendency for human beings to assume that death will be horrific and painful, which he claimed causes unnecessary anxiety, selfish self-protective behaviors, and hypocrisy. According to Epicurus, death is the end of both the body and the soul and therefore should not be feared. Epicurus taught that although the gods exist, they have no involvement in human affairs. He taught that people should behave ethically not because the gods punish or reward people for their actions, but because amoral behavior will burden them with guilt and prevent them from attaining ataraxia (serene calmness).

Finally Eclecticism: the practice of deriving (selecting) ideas, style, or taste from a broad and diverse range of sources.

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