By definition, sub-atomic particles are "point particles" having zero dimensions.
It is thus about 1,800 times smaller in mass than a proton or neutron.
The neutrino has been recently discovered. It is about 500,000 times smaller than an electron, an electrically neutral elementary particle that comes in three flavours
Main Terms —
Protons and Neutrons — three-quark baryons that exist in the atom's nucleus — are each roughly of the same mass. Within its nucleus one hydrogen proton rotates about 42 million times per second.
The orbital speed of an atom's tiny electron is, relatively speaking, perhaps a bit over 2 million metres per second inside empty space, zooming no further in any one direction than 10,000 times the distance found in the diameter of the atom's nucleus. One hydrogen electron orbits 6,600 trillion times per second. At that smallness, and at that speed, it makes it impossible to predict an electron's placement, as opposed to its orbital, without freezing time. Click here re this "uncertainty" principle. Accordingly electrons appear at any given moment as waves, having size, shape and orientation. Their movement or "spin" is defined as having an upward or downward direction, creating a tiny magnetic field.
Each electron pairs up inside its orbital with a second electron having an opposite "spin", which cancels out the other's magnetic field. In hydrogen where two atoms combine in an H2 molecule with no lessening of speed, both electrons do spend more time of their "fuzzy" orbits in between the nuclei than outside, thus producing bonding.
Unpaired electrons can exist in the outermost orbital shell of the atom.
More on this "invisibility" zero dimension aspect of sub-atomic particles.
There are (very roughly) 50 million trillion atoms in a grain of sand. Yes, very small.
Therefore, if a piece of fruit, say a grapefruit, expanded to the size of the earth, an atom, say a nitrogen atom, in that grapefruit, would take up the size of a blueberry, 99.9999999% empty space, with seven tiny, and still invisible, super-super-speedy electrons whizzing, forming a cloud effect around the nucleus with its seven protons. Nor can we yet see the nucleus inside this atom, this "blueberry". If we expanded the "blueberry" to the size of a football stadium 100metres wide x 500metres long x 20metres high, the nucleus would be the size of a one centimetre marble. And very dense
Click here for this very watchable YouTube video by Ted-Ed.
Still even in this "football stadium", the electron particles would be invisible (to the naked eye) other than as a wave. Still travelling at the same speed and with all that (truly) invisible energy repelling the other electrons outside its orbit. Nigh impossible to pinpoint.
Atoms do combine frequently via their electron orbitals to form molecules, with empty space between each molecule. Based on the amount of empty space, all matter can be perceived as solid, liquid or gas, with gas having the most empty space between molecules.
So all molecules vibrate, and velocity of the molecules of air at room temperature may be taken as 500 metres per second. This then is reflected in the speed of sound through a medium where the molecules are more tightly packed — in water sound travels four to five times more quickly, in steel perhaps eighteen times more quickly.
In terms of temperature, when the temperature of matter is high relative to surrounding matter, it means that its molecules are moving faster, expanding their environment, colliding more vigorously, raising their surrounding temperature and breaking the matter down.
In current understanding, temperatures cover a range from absolute zero, a theoretical state of molecular "stillness" that occurs at -273.14° Celsius, to absolute hot, a theoretical state of molecular (or something) "movement" at 142 million trillion trillion° Celsius, a heat that is assumed to have occurred at the beginning of creation, of light.
To put it in context, our normal body temperature is 37° Celsius.
So, ultimately, it's all about movement. And thankyou Lord for your healing, redemptive work. For your refreshing.
Unlike a bound electron, an unbound electron can absorb energy in any amount. Click here for an image of these free, unbound electrons, contrasting their individual speed (measured in thousands of kms per second), generating trillions of collisions per second, and actual drift speed (measured in millimetres per second).
Extract below from www.decodedscience.org
Bound and Unbound Electrons: Important Differences
Now, in binding to an atom, the electron loses some of its identity. No longer unbound it can absorb and emit only certain specific amounts of energy (sometimes called quanta). These quantities of energy are associated with photons. Some photons (those in the visible range of the electromagnetic spectrum) are associated with color. Bound electrons play an important role in the colors of nature. Bound electrons also exhibit various behaviors in magnetic fields. Such interactions are important in analytical chemistry and in the field of medicine.
Click here for NASA's introduction to light energy talking about reflection from objects, bending via a prism and scattering via molecules of air — Why is the sky blue ?
Click here for more on this "wave forming" of electrons and light.
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