On Saturday, March 13, 2010 2:55 PM, "Stephen Williamson" wrote:
Subject: China and its government "money"
Just been having a look over several articles on the web on the history of paper "money" in China. Yes, it did last for 400 or so years, from 1023, but as I thought, pretty much inconvertible to silver and gold, and with nothing backing it other than the government's insistence that it was to be legal tender.
Finally winding up, due to hyperinflation (and, I imagine, massive unpopularity) in 1450.
Then normal trading conditions worldwide, after a fashion, using silver ingots and copper coins, until 1889, when paper currency started up again.
But heaps of problems again with it, due to wars with both the Japanese and then the Communist government taking over.
Interestingly, it appears Jewish traders played a fairly important role in the government at the very beginning of this exercise.
In a study by Qiu Shiyu, researcher of the Harbin Academy of Sciences, a group of Jewish people came to China for trading in the middle of the 10th century. Most of them reached what is known today as Kaifeng in Henan province, the capital of the Southern Song Dynasty (1127-1279) and the most prosperous business metropolis at that time. Jewish people had important roles in the governmental departments in the businesses of taxation, financing and trading, according to Qiu's study, which revealed that "they were possibly omnipotent people," said Qiu. Jews enjoyed great honor for their talent and hard work. During the reign of Jin Shizong (1161-1189), the central government established a synagogue for them, which was China's earliest church of its kind.
Ok, here's a brief account.
After many years of using letters of credit (or "flying money"), the Sung dynasty was the first to issue true paper money in 1023, and it did so at first cautiously, issuing small amounts, used in a limited area, and good for a specific time period. The notes would be redeemed after three years service, to be replaced by new notes for a 3% service charge, a neat way for the government to make money.
The abuses started immediately. Though the notes were valued at a certain exchange rate for gold, silver, or silk, in practice convertibility was never allowed. Then, the notes were not retired as they printed many more of them. The government made several attempts to support the paper by demanding taxes partly in currency and making other laws, but the damage had been done, and the notes fell out of favour.
In 1217, the Mongols successfully invaded from the north. The Mongol empire issued paper money on a moderate scale in 1236, known as the First Mongol Issue.
Then, in 1260 Kublai Khan decreed that this paper money must be accepted by traders on pain of death. As further encouragement, he confiscated all gold and silver, even if it was brought in by foreign traders. He furthermore demanded that a certain percentage of taxes be paid using paper money.
Excessive printing year after year soon flooded the market with depreciated paper money until the face value of each certificate bore little or no relation to its counterpart in silver. In 1272 a series of new issues were put in circulation at a conversion rate of five old notes to one new one. This became known as the Second Mongol Issue.
When Marco Polo visited China (1275-1292, he was so impressed by paper money that he wrote a whole chapter in his Travels, describing everything about its manufacture and circulation. He described the manner in which it was issued:
"All these pieces of paper are issued with as much solemnity and authority as if they were of pure gold or silver; and on every piece a variety of officials, whose duty it is, have to write their names, and to put their seals. And when all is duly prepared, the chief officer deputed by the Khan smears the Seal entrusted to him with vermilion, and impresses it on the paper, so that the form of the Seal remains printed upon it in red; the Money is then authentic. Anyone forging it would be punished with death."
He wrote that the emperor of China made so many notes each year that he could buy the whole treasure of the world, 'though it costs him nothing'.
While Marco Polo reported relative success of the Chinese monetary system in Europe, continued depreciation required another revaluation in 1309. The Third Mongol Issue followed the same 5:1 ratio of its predecessors. In an effort to reduce the amount of notes in circulation the government often refused to exchange new issues for old certificates that had been worn out through use.
Around 1350, during the final phase of the Mongol dynasty, huge efforts were made to correct the currency. Paper notes issued by private, provincial and central government agencies had resulted in an explosion in credit and subsequent precipitous fall in its value.
In 1374, the new Ming dynasty issued its first paper money, known as Ta Ming T'ung Hsisng Pao Ch'ao ("Great Ming Precious Notes"). (Once again), these notes were inconvertible to coin and little effort was made to maintain the value. Six different issues are known to have occurred between 1368-1426 although it is likely that there were many more.
The value of these notes rapidly declined and by the early 15th century, the ratio between the paper and coin exceeded 300:1. The Great Ming Precious Notes were eventually suspended in 1450, though they are recorded as being in circulation until 1573. Silver from overseas trading became the preferred medium of exchange. The coins circulated as ingots that were called "sycees", weiging about 36 grams.
For the next 450 years China functioned under a silver and copper economy. This ended following the revolution and overthrow of the emperor in 1911, followed by Chiang Kai-shek's rise to power in 1927, and formation of a Central Bank.
Banknotes had been issued in yuan (and dollar denominations - the two words were equivalent) from the 1890s by several local and private banks, along with the Imperial Bank of China and the "Hu Pu Bank" (later the "Ta-Ch'ing Government Bank"), established by the Imperial government. After 1913 the Imperial Bank became the Commercial Bank of China.
Banknotes of this first yuan suffered from hyperinflation up to and following the Second World War and then as Communist forces took control, and were replaced in August 1948 by notes denominated in gold yuan, worth 3 million of the first yuan.
Then a new yuan was introduced in 1955 at a rate of 10,000 old yuan = 1 new yuan.
It is today known as the renminbi yuan.
** End of article
Stephen Williamson Computing Services Pty Ltd