Etymologies of Phrases, Words, Alphabets

showing the origins of Biblical (and other) words in Hebrew (OT) and Greek (NT) and the way the meanings have changed through time

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Regarding the etymology of the word etymology it is made up of two words "Etymon" — Origin / True Sense / Essence and "Logoi" — Words. The modern Greek word is "Eteos" — True, Real, or Genuine. In the Greek New Testament neither Eteos nor Etymon can be found, but two closely related Greek words are Etos — Years / Cycles (since the Origin of Adam) from which we get the modern word veteran and Eimi — translated as "I am" or "Essence of Being".
This word "Etymology" was Latinized by Cicero as Veriloquium — a true speech (translation). Brings to mind Pilate's words "What is truth i.e. not hidden?"

Jesus’s reply is of course not recorded and Pilate having had the last word, walks out. And he answers his own question in his next word to the Jewish leaders “I find in him no fault at all” and after Jesus has been scourged "Behold the man".

John 1:14 And the word “logos” became flesh (weak, exposed, and subject to the ravages of the years “etos”) and dwelt, encamped among us (where men and women could see him as he is “eimi”). And we have beheld his glory, his splendour, the splendour of the only-born of the Father, full of grace (favour) and truth (unhidden).

True, like a Tree, a vine tree, through many years, He is the vine, we are his branches. His words bring total protection, as long as we stay joined. The enemy’s fibs frequently involve shortcuts, bypass the time that God says is necessary for genuine fruit.

A close derivative of truth-speaker is "sooth-sayer" from "soo" — related to the Latin / Italian verb "sono" — the old English word "sinner" → In truth I am (guilty), In truth I am (judged) — I come up short, in debt. To miss the goal and prize in Greek, also in Hebrew. To stumble - peccare in Latin, French, Italian.

Similar and related English / Germanic words to guilt, under obligation that evolved around 1200-1400 were "yield" — Make payment or service, "gild / gilt" — Provide yellow, golden covering, "guild" — Become the governing body in a town, having different members but having the same trade / tread in life (and death).


1 Cor13 Chatting about Love

10 Dimensions

Aleph Bet — Ancient Hebrew with a modern day pronunciation guide.

Alphabets — Ancient Hebrew and the various scripts that developed from it: Greek and Latin and Cyrillic, Devanagari, and Arabic. Over in the far east Chinese Japanese and Korean on the other hand developed from an early, syllabic, cuneiform script.

Amazed — Being Beside Yourself (or nuts)

Amber — Fossilized tree resin, the appearance of the Lord, and "absolutely electric"

Angels (and kings)

Aramaic — from Aram, son of Shem, and its relationship to Hebrew and Arabic

Ark of the Covenant — its last physical placement. In 2 Chronicles 35 King Josiah tells the Levites to "Put the holy ark into the temple. You need not carry it on your shoulders any longer. Now serve the Lord." Not long after, just 35 years later the temple was destroyed, burnt to the ground by Nebuchadnezzar of Babylon. And Jeremiah, in Jeremiah 3:16, speaks of the day coming when "the ark of the covenant shall not come to mind, remembered, missed, nor rebuilt, and at that time Jerusalem shall be called the Throne of the Lord, and all nations shall gather to it, to the presence of the Lord in Jerusalem."

Armenia — also from Aram, son of Shem

Baptism — Dipped in water

Basis — Authoritative place — Bema

Bible Timeline — reconciled with Jewish Calendar and James Ussher

Biblical Criticism — Jewish Rabbi on Moses contrasted with Baruch Spinoza Dutch philosopher 1632-1677 and Julius Wellhausen German theologian 1844-1918

Bios — and prayer and Jacob wrestling with "the man"

Bishopric from "episkopos" — to oversee. See too Deacon from "diaconus", a "go-between", a servant or minister.

Blessing and Cursing — first mention in scripture

Book(s) —(a) Parchment and Papyrus (Pre flood)
(b) Wax Tablets using stone and boxwood (Moses and the Prophets)
(c) Codex Bound Pages in a single unit by the time of Julius Caesar and the New Testament
Bind them (strips of parchment) to your fingers and write them on the (soft) tablets of your heart Proverbs 7:32

Book of Jude — some thoughts

Book of Judges and Samuel — Saul and David. Includes a list of judges, a link to a list of high priests, and a reconciliation beween Paul's "450 years of judges" in the Book of Acts, and the Old Testament's "480th year" from the Exodus to Solomon "beginning to build the Lord's house"

Buddha, Confucius, Seth and Larry — words/last words

Caesar Augustus decree made about 1 BC for the Jewish customs, their holy days, and their "highest god"

Cain and Abel, Enoch and Enosh, Iysh and Ishshah, Adam and Adamah

Calendar History

Canada and US — some history

Catholic from two Greek words "Kata" (about) and "Holos" (the whole thing) i.e. universal teachings

Chapel and Chaplain from the French word for "cape" — story of Martin of Tours, a Roman soldier who cut his cape in two to give to a shivering person and heard the Lord "you have clothed me"


Chosen (Forever Young)

Christopher Columbus — Travelling west to "India" in 1492. Long before Copernicus (1473-1543) and Galileo (1564-1642) it was known to many scholars that the earth was a sphere, see Isaiah 40:22, and the concept that the earth revolved around the sun was an old one. But it was not easy countering the mainstream geocentric teaching of Aristotle (384BC-322BC) and Ptolemy (100AD-170AD).

Chuck Missler (Chuck Smith, Maranatha Music)

Church, God and Jesus's name in numerous languages.

Cities of Refuge — Asylum — Sanctuary

Classes (in Rome and in France) and Political Parties (in UK, US, and Australia)

Consecrated Life — prayer time with Tony McLennan from Bible League Australia

Creeds up to the Apostles Creed

Crimson Grub

Cromwell and Princess Henrietta Maria and Adolf Hitler

Crucifixion — Timeline of the Last Supper, Jesus's Arrest and the Crucifixion

Day — Yowm

Diocese from "dia-oikos" — a managed region

Dispensation — Resources meeting Needs. Basic Economics. Stewardship

Drinking and Watering cf Blood cf Holy Anointing Oil

Driving on the left side of the road. Before the late 1700s, everyone in Europe used to do it. Why did Europe (and the US) change?

Early Creeds

Early Marriages in scripture, from Adam and Eve to Abraham and Sarah

Early Numerals and Measurements

East West North and South

Ecclesia — Citizens Assemblies and Early Church — Kyrie and Lord's House — and Peter

Epic of Gilgamesh — First full account discovered in 1853 in Nineveh. It was written in Akkadian script on numerous clay tablets, inside the Royal Library of Ashurbanipal, the last great king of Assyria circa 600BC. Click here for their timeline. The Nineveh record was compiled between 1300BC and 1000BC, apparently from a record in Ur, circa 2020BC. Ur, Abraham's birthplace, is also famous for the Code of Ur-Nammu click here, the oldest known law code surviving today. Gilgamesh himself was said to be a king of Erech who visited Utnapishtim (Noah) who told him about the great flood. The king's plan had been to discover the secret of eternal life, rumoured to have been granted to Noah given his great age at the visit

Epipipto — Holy Spirit Embrace

Eternity and Thoughts on 1 John 5

Eucharist from "eucharistia" — to give thanks (in response to being "well-favoured")

Evil — Two words for "evil" in New Testament "Kakos"-kakky injury and "Poneros"-painful punishment

Feasts — Feast (literally Appointed Time) of Trumpets

Fellowship — Good old 1 Corinthians

Football Timeline — Aussie Rules, Gaelic Football, Grid Iron, Rugby League, Rugby Union, Soccer

Foreknowledge vs Fortune Telling

Four Horsemen, Simon the Pharisee, Judas, and Paul's attitude to taking up a collection

Four Living Creatures, four main tribes (around the tabernacle), and the four points on the Hebrew compass: east (towards the sunrise), south (strong hand on the right), north (hidden covering on the left), and west (the roar, the Mediterranean Sea behind)

Garden Tomb, Calvary, Maps of the old city and Modern Jerusalem

Gehenna the valley of fire for refuse and dishonoured corpses in the days of Jesus

Genealogies of Jesus

Genesis 2 and 3 — Nakedness, Smoothness, and Shame

Gentile — A member of a nation-family, in the Latin "gentilis", in the Greek "ethnikos", in the Hebrew "goy". Each society taught that members of its own nation (or family) were normal civilised people, "gentle", "gentlemanly", but members of nations (in general) were outsiders, foreigners, with languages that were "barbaric".
Seen in Genesis 12:2 when God tells Abraham he would make of him a great nation or "goy" גּוֹי Play. Then, in Acts when Paul explained how God had told him to Go, for I will send you far away from here to the "goyim" גּוֹיִים Play, his inferred rejection of Israel and acceptance of "barbarians" brought a wild reaction from the listeners. Acts 22:21.

Giants — a scholarly treatise on the Nephilim, the Rephaim and the Anakim in the Hebrew Old Testament, the Greek Septuagint, and Josephus's writings in 100AD

Glory, Weight, Gravity — Law of Relativity and Four Forces in Physics

Goad — An iron spike, nail at the end of a rod about two or more metres long.

God's 7 Day Week vs Blind Evolution

Greatest Commandment — Love God with Heart, Soul, Mind and Strength

Greek History — Solon's Democracy to Alexander the Great

Groat and Groschen — About 1280, a fourpenny bit was issued in England using 5.1 grams of fine silver. Called a groat, it corresponded to the "groschen" a thick silver coin issued in Prague in Bohemia – today's Czech Republic, also in Tirol in Northern Italy, and elsewhere. By 1559, the level of silver in England's groat had dropped to 2.1 grams. It continued to be issued until 1856. Meanwhile, the Groschen in Bohemia was discontinued in 1547 after their release of the Joachimsthaler, the basis of the Dollar.

Happening — stuff that happens to happen to people

History of Calendar

History of Money

Homosexual, first used as a word about 1880
On a somewhat related issue, click here for some statistics on sex abnormalities in DNA, ones that do not fit the typical definitions for male or female bodies.
Click here for an authoritative Q&A on HIV/AIDS.

Horse — Hebrew meaning is "Skip" (for joy). Top speed about 88 kph. Ridden by cavalry and charioteers, the wealthy, the nobles, and the King in Old Testament times and also in the Book of Revelation.
Ass or donkey — Beasts of burden. Top speed about 24 kph. Ridden by Jesus when he entered Jerusalem.

Host from "hostia" — holy victim/stranger/sacrifice
contrast with the other meaning of "Host" — from "hospes" — showing hospitality to strangers or guests

Human from "humanus" — Latin adjective for "belonging to man", with its prefix "hu" derived from "humus", "ghe", "ge", even ultimately "he" inferring Adam — "belonging to (mother) earth"

The feminine form "she" on the other hand is derived from the Dutch word "zij" and the German word "sie", related to the English words "zeal" and "soul" and "sea" (of passions).

  1. Semen and sperm, atoms and molecules, DNA, the "building blocks" of life
  2. Hormones — Amino Acids and Steroids. Also Enzymes, and more thoughts on DNA in Humans
  3. Bacteria Colonies in the Gut — their development in babies via the birth canal, breastfeeding, other environmental factors

Humour, from Latin humor ‘moisture’, 'bodily fluids' changing in the late 16th century to its modern meaning where "humoring someone" means "providing amusement, teasing and sport"

Hur, Bible men in the Background

India — its ancient name "Bhaa-rat" as written in eight of its most widely spoken languages. Derived from the words (in Sanskrit) "Bhr"-Bear or carry and "rata"-the search for, to be engaged in, to love.
Click here for links to more languages spoken by 20 million or more in India — Kannada, Maithili, Malayalam, Nepali, Odia and Sindhi.
English, according to the census, is spoken by 125 million of the people.

  1. भारत Play in the Devanagari script is pronounced "Bhaa-rat" in the official Hindi language — 260 million native speakers. Derived from the original Brahmi script, that was used to write the Indo-Aryan Sanskrit language, with early universities formed at Taxila about 200BC, and Nalanda, and later at Vikramashila. However, minimal written records exist today prior to 1100AD.
  2. بھارت Play in Urdu (a Perso-Arabic alphabet) is pronounced "Bhaa-rat" in the Urdu language — 65 million native speakers in India, 16 million in Pakistan.
    The Hindi language was heavily influenced by Urdu, a word derived from the Turkic word "Ordu" meaning a "Horde or Army". During the 16th century, the Turko-Mongol conqueror Babur brought most of northern India under the rule of his Mughal (Mongol) Army who learned to speak the local language. When the Persian Emperor Shah Jahan built a new walled city in Delhi in 1639, the market close to the royal army fort was called Urdu Bazar. About 1800 the British shortened it to Urdu. Both Hindi and Urdu were referred to by the British as two dialects in the one language, an old Persian word "Hindustani". They were mutually intelligible except Urdu was written in the Perso-Arabic script, becoming an official language of Pakistan. However, to further complicate matters, the third language, Punjabi is the one most frequently spoken in Pakistan today.
  3. ਭਾਰਤ Play in the Punjabi language — 122 million native speakers, about 30 million in India, over 90 million in Pakistan — having two scripts. India uses the Gurmukhi script designed by early Sikh gurus. Its chief centre is the Golden Temple in Amritsar, completed in 1577.
    In Pakistan where a Perso-Arabic alphabet is employed by Muslims, it uses the Shahmukhi script that dates back to 500AD. The script differs from the Urdu alphabet by having four additional letters.
  4. ભારત Play in the Gujarati language and script is pronounced "Bhaa-rat" by the Gujarat people — 49 million native speakers — in western India, and was specifically spoken by Mahatma Ghandi, though he also spoke Hindi and English as well.
  5. ভারত Play in the Bengali language and script — 300 million native speakers — is pronounced "Bhaa-rat" in Bangladesh.
  6. భారత్ Play in the Telugu language and script — 74 million native speakers — is pronounced "Bhaa-rat" in South-east India.
  7. In the Marathi language — 73 million native speakers — used in Maharashtra in western India, it employs the Devanagari script (see number 1 above).
  8. இந்தியா Play in the Tamil language and script — 70 million native speakers — is pronounced "India" in southern India.

Inflation — its History

Japanese — some background to their scripts

Jealousy — Zeal — Envy — Qanna (Hebrew) and Zelos (Greek)

Jeremiah 29 and living in Babylon

Jerusalem — its History with maps to the "Old City", plus extra sketches of Herod's Temple.

Jesus's Family — Cousins,Aunties

Jesus Life on Earth 2 BC — 31 AD

Jesus Pre-Existence

Jubilee Years

Keep — Guard — Being responsible — Shamar

Key Verse Favorites

Kisses and other interesting subjects

Knights and their fame as the Knights Templar in Jerusalem and Europe starting in 1119. Followed by the legend of Arthur and the Knights of the Round Table in 1155.

Kyrie — It's Christmas, so I just updated my page on Kyrie Eleison and that old chap, Cyrus, with some extra background.

Let's Go Dancing — Choros

Logos (loyal) Law Love and Lever

Love and Truth and Marriage (and soul and spirit)

Makeup of Man

Male and Female

Marry — related to the Latin word "mari" - (given) to this male, and a similar word "maritus" - a husband

Mass from "Dismissal" — Go forth

Mention from the Latin word "mens, mentis" and the Greek word "mneia" — the mind. Click here for Paul's use of the word in his prayers for the church. Click here for all New Testament related words "memories, remembrances, even sepulchres and tombs" — the "redeemed" past that is ever present in God, in his unchanging nature. Jesus Christ, the redeemer, the same yesterday, today, and tomorrow Hebrews 13:8. All things working together for good for them that love God Romans 8:28.

Related Words:

  1. Mamona — Mammon, Big "Mama", Physical Wealth
  2. Mona — in Arabic and Persian ("Moon" in old English)
  3. Money (from "Monitor") — its History
  4. Click here for a full list derived from Daniel's ancient words "Mene Mene" — Counting, Counted.

    1. Mind (Monitor)
    2. Projecting (Mountain, Amount)
    3. Remaining (Manor, Manse)
    4. Isolated (Monastery, Ministry)

Mishneh based on Shanah — Second Part of Jerusalem, Copy (of the Law), Study by Repetition, Double

Mishnah also refers to the Second (or Oral) Law. It was codified by Judah bin Nasi (the Prince) in 189 AD in Northern Israel after the Jews were forbidden entrance to Jerusalem on pain of death (following the revolt by Jewish leader Bar Kochba in 132 - 135 AD). The Mishnah was written to ensure their traditional oral customs were not lost. It groups these laws under six basic headings: 1. Blessings Givings and Agricultural laws 2. Festivals 3. Marriage Divorce and Nazirite vows 4. Civil and Criminal laws 5. Holy things and Dietary laws 6. Purity and Impurity.

Motorcars photos and links to 10 early vehicles during the first 27 years of the automobile industry starting with the famous Benz Patent Motorwagen in 1885, based on the Ottomotor internal combustion engine.
Click here for the first filling station in history, Bertha Benz (Karl Benz's wife) refuelling at a local pharmacy in Wiesloch Germany in 1888, taking on Ligroin, a solvent then referred to as Petroleum Ether, that consisted mostly of C7 and C8 hydrocarbons. Very shortly, the fame of Karl Benz's patented invention skyrocketed. Ligroin became Petroleumbenzin in Germany (benzina in Italy), having a name that also gave a nod to one of its important components benzene, benzol in Germany, and the car's engine became no longer simply a "Gasmotorfabriken", but a "Benzinmotor"
Click here for other early names for motor car fuel — moto essence in France, petrol in England, gasoline in the US — extracted from an early 1899 Automotor Pocket Book of Automotive Formulae and Commercial Intelligence that clarified somewhat the main brands used at the time.

Mt Sinai — The Law, and That Fellowship Issue - Good old 1 Corinthians

Music — its pentatonic, diatonic and chromatic scales, Chinese musicology, and A440 — the audio frequency reference presently used for orchestra tuning. What does all that mean ?

Myers Briggs Psychological Types and Work Place Stats

Nicodemus, Nicolas of Antioch, Nicolaus of Damascus, and Nicolaitans

Numbers and Measurements

Numbering God's People

Nun from "nana" — a term of family affection for an older lady

Offerings — Five Offerings in Leviticus

Paradise and the Third Heaven

Parish from "para-oikos" — the administrative "part" of a diocese (or bishopric) that has its "own building" (or church).

Passion — Suffering — Feeling Under Pressure — Pascho and Pascha

Passover — Dates in 2020

Tuesday 7th April (The Lord's Passover) is 14th day of first month when the passover lamb is killed, with its blood traditionally drained to the foot of the table (altar) before sunset. Normally the time of the full moon. In the first Passover, used to bedaub the lintel and the doorposts of the Hebrew houses in Egypt. Until the destruction of the Second Temple in 70AD, the sacrifice of each household's lamb was performed by a large number of priests in the Temple courtyard in Jerusalem, over perhaps a five hour period. Click here for a reference to this by Josephus.
Wednesday 8th April is 15th day of month starting at sunset the previous evening, the first day of Unleavened Bread with the previous evening referred to as the Passover Seder when the whole household shares in the meal together. In some households and synagogues the Seder runs into the early hours of the following morning, with midnight remembering the moment of judgment on Egypt-the world, and the testing of Jesus in the Garden in Gethsemane. The Feast of Unleavened Bread then runs for seven days, with sacrifices every day in the Temple courtyard in accordance with Numbers 28
Sunday 12th April in 2020 is the Feast of First Fruits, as it is the first day after the normal weekly sabbath.

Paul Brand and "Granny" Brand (and pain and Cain and Abel)

Paul's Missionary Journeys one per map plus a full map with original Bible names

Peace — Irony — Shalom (Hebrew) and Eirene (Greek)

Pneumatikos vs Psuchikos — Spiritual vs Natural

Praise and Worship

Priest — in old English "Preost" is related to the French word "Provost" (where the v is pronounced as a w), and the High German word "Probost". Both are related to the Latin word "Praepositus" — Front Row (Forward) and the Greek word "Presbus" — "Pres" (Front) and "Bu" (ox) — (an Ox) leading the way. From which we also derive the word "Presbyterian", normally translated in English as Elder. In the Vulgate Bible the Latin word "Senior" was used, their word for an Elder or Older man.

Priest in Old Testament Hebrew (and translated in the Greek Septuagint as "Hiereus") is the word "Kohen" — Officer (of God), a title conferred on Melchizedek in early Jerusalem at the time of Abraham, Jethro in Midian at the time of Moses, and then on Aaron (Moses's older brother) and his descendants.

Priest in New Testament Greek is the word Hiereus from "Hieros" — Holy One — the one who points the way to connectedness or Wholeness (Holiness). In the Latin Vulgate the word "Sacerdos" was used, for the one who did Holy or Sacred Acts. See too Hierosolyma — Jerusalem, "Pointing the Way out to Peace" from the Hebrew words "Yara" and "Shalom". Also Hieron, the "Holy Temple" (contrasted with Hagion, the "Holy Place").

"High" Priest is Archiereus — Actions of Piety of Christ in Hebrews 5

Psalm 137:9 — Devastation — Dashing little ones upon the rocks

Python — from Greek word "Putho" - to enquire. Related via Latin to the words "putrid" and "ponder" and "foundation". Also a place, later called Delphi, an ancient sanctuary in Greece where people sought out oracles. And an evil spirit, as seen in Acts 16:16.

Rabbis and Princes and Scribes and Pharisees — The Jewish Council — protecting the Law and all the Traditions of Judaism over the past 2,000 years

Rapture and Mysteries

Religious Affiliations 2016

Repentance — A Changed Worldview — Nacham (Hebrew) and Metanoia (Greek)

Reprove and Rebuke — in a definition of Faith — the substructure of things expected (hoped for), the reproof of things not seen.

Righteous among the Nations — the story of Miep Gies (and Anne Frank)

"Risen" — the movie

Sacrifice from "sacred" and "facere" — to make sacred for God
in Greek "thusos" — smoke and fire

School — its etymology

See — five shades of meaning

Seeking God and the Four Living Creatures

Seven Churches in Revelation

Sixes and Sevens (in Hebrew) and the Sabbath rest

Seven Spirits in the Book of Revelation and in Isaiah 11:2
The first spirit is the Spirit of Jehovah (God), followed by three couplets, the Future, the Present, the Past.

Skateboarding Timeline

South Africa timeline, "Amazing Grace", anti-slavery, Mr Hitler, and Nelson Mandela

Swearing an Oath — Shaba (Hebrew) and Horkos (Greek)


Tabernacle and the Temple in the days of Solomon, Zerubbabel and Herod

Table of Nations Josephus and World's Nations Today

Talmud from Lamad — teach, train or learn, and Malmadox goad

Taxes — History in Australia and Worldwide.

Temptation — being stressed, pierced to the limits. In James 1 it says that no one is to accuse God of bringing stress to their temper, their limits.
God is limitless, he is untestable with badness, and he tests no one that way.
Rather, temptation means we are drawn away of our own coveting or cupidity (self-love) — chamad in Hebrew, epithumeo in Greek — our own heated yearning and become deluded, entrapped. Then when the yearning conceives, it gives birth to sin, and sin ultimately to death.
A related word is batsa in Hebrew, pleonexia in Greek — one who is covetous, literally, one who "cuts off" what is another's, who "exceeds" a (rightful) holding.
Click here for further "apparent" contradictions in KJV's English, when God "tempted" Abraham in Genesis 22, the use of the word "temptation" in Deuteronomy 4:34, and in the well known Lord's Prayer.

Terah — Father of Delay

That Letter J

The World and Thoughts on 1 John 5

This Generation

U235 and U238 in Uranium — some basic notes

Urim and Thummim

US and Canada — some history

Week — in major languages worldwide.

Wisdom vs Knowledge and James 4

World Religions — Colossians 1&2, Romans 1:28 and Apollos

FYI, if you use an iPhone and you click on the Play icon and the website just hangs there, you may need to clear your website history and data. This should also improve Safari's performance.
To do this
1. On the iPhone, select Settings, then select Safari. Tap the link Clear History and Website data.
2. Turn off your iPhone, then turn it on again.

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