History of India

YearDynasty, Languages Spoken and Notes
1500BC - 600BCJanapada Dynasty

It was the Vedic period that followed the flood.
Sanskrit was the main language, the Indo-"Aryan" speech of the nobles of India, related to the language of "Iran".

No written records exist until the Ashoka edicts in 256BC.

Due to their perishable nature, also an insistence on pronouncing (and explaining) the words correctly, it is unclear as to when the Vedas were first written down. The oldest surviving manuscripts in Nepal date to c. 1040.
A copy in the British Library click here dates to 1495 - 1735.

600BC - 400BCMahajanapadas 16 traditional Tribes.

Gautama Buddha was said to have been born at this time in Nepal, traditionally speaking "noble" Sanskrit. Buddha was said to have been opposed to its use in his preaching, however, preferring the Prakrit ("common speech") of Magadha, a language also known as Pali. Magadha was an important region in north-east India (modern day Bihar state).

Pataliputra, modern day Patna, is a city thought to have been built towards the end of Buddha's life. It became the capital city for many of India's succeeding dynasties up until the time of the Delhi Sultanate in 1200. It is situated 1,000 kilometres to the east of Delhi.

About 380BC the Persian empire reigned throughout India at the time of Queen Esther (Esther 1:1).

Also at this time the "Bhagavad‑Gita" ("God's Song") is thought to have been composed in Sanskrit as a section inside the "Maha‑bharata" ("Great Story").

"Bog" became the name for "God" amongst the northern Scythian tribes (modern day Russia) while "Bharat" or "Bharata" became the common name for "India".

350BCNanda Empire

A short-lived empire in the Magadha region. It was followed by Alexander the Great's invasion. His empire was subsequently ruled by one of his generals, Seleucus in Syria, with Greek and Aramaic becoming common languages throughout his empire.

322BC - 180BCMaurya Empire

Starting about 256BC, Buddhist King Ashoka issued over 30 copies of Prakrit ("common speech") edicts on pillars and cave walls in the Brahmi script, except in north-west India where Kharosthi, Aramaic and Greek alphabets were used.

These are the earliest writings in India in existence. The Brahmi script is thought to be a derivative of Aramaic (Syriac), the same family as Arabic and Hebrew, though in most cases Brahmi (and its derivatives) are written from left to right. Later it evolved into today's Deva‑nagari script ("Divine writing") used to write modern day Hindi.

In north-west India (modern day Pakistan) the ancient kingdom of Gandhara used the Kharosthi script, another Aramaic-derived alphabet, and written from right to left. The Gandharan Buddhist texts are the oldest Indian manuscripts yet discovered, as well as the oldest Buddhist manuscripts, dating from the 1st century BC to the 3rd century AD.

150BC - 400Indo-Scythians

Eurasian Nomads from the north. Scythian, Greek, and Pali are the common languages.

30 - 375Kushan Empire

traditionally said to be from Western China.

c.30AD Kujula Kadphises united the Yuezhi confederation known as the Kushanas during the 1st century, and became the first Kushan emperor.

His capital city was Purushapura, Peshawar (today part of Pakistan, just inside its border with Afghanistan). The Greek language was commonly used at first, but after 127AD the Bactrian language of Eastern Persia took over, using a Greek script. Diplomatic relations formed with China's Han dynasty, also with Persia, Rome, and the Aksum dynasty in Northern Ethiopia.

The year 148 saw the first documented translation of Buddhist scriptures from various Indian languages into Chinese, with Kushan monks travelling along the Silk Road.

240 - 590Gupta Empire

traditionally said to be from the east (i.e. modern day Bangla Desh). Prakrit and Sanskrit are the common languages.

606 - 647Harsha Vardhana Dynasty
730 - 1036Gurjara Pratihara Dynasty

traditionally said to be from Madhya Pradesh in Central India

831 - 1311Chandela Dynasty
977 - 1186Ghaznavid Dynasty

Turkic peoples from Ghazni in Afghanistan speaking Persian (their lingua franca) and Turkic (the language of their military).

In 683 Arab armies brought Islam to Afghanistan. About 200-300 years later, Ghazni (about 400 kilometres west of Peshawar) was conquered and rebuilt and for nearly the next two hundred years (from 977 till 1163) the city was said to be the "dazzling capital" of the Ghaznavid Empire. In 1021 Shah Mahmud annexed Lahore about 500 kilometres south-east of Peshawar, making it his second capital. Today Lahore is in modern Pakistan, just inside the border from India.

1206 - 1526Delhi Sultanate

Muslim Turkic peoples, initially from Ghor in Afghanistan, speaking Persian.

In 1210 when General Qutb al-Din Aibak died unexpectedly in Lahore during a sport game the local nobles appointed Aram Shah to be his successor. Other nobles, in opposition, proposed Iltutmish as firstly Aibak called him a son and secondly he had a distinguished record of service. Iltutmish marched to Delhi about 400 kilometres south-east of Lahore where he seized power, and later defeated Aram Shah's forces. He became the first Muslim sovereign to rule from Delhi.

1526 - 1857Mughal Empire

Founded by Babur 1483-1530 a descendant of Genghis Khan through his mother and Timur (Tamburlaine the Great) through his father. A Turko-Mongol dynasty initially, but with marriage alliances the culture changed to Indo-Persian.

The Golden Temple was built in 1589 in Amritsar, about 450 kilometres north-west of Delhi and about 50 kilometres east of Lahore, just inside the Indian border. It became the pre-eminent site of Sikhism.

It was followed by the Taj Mahal, built in 1643 in Agra about 200 kilometres south of Delhi as a tomb for the shah's wife, and then the shah himself.

In 1626 the Red Fort at Delhi, a newly built residence for the Mughal Emperor, made first documented reference to "Urdu" Bazar, the marketplace language of the "Horde" (or the "Camp").
Today the language is called "Hindustani" or Hindi-Urdu, the Hindi language combined with Persian Arabic and Chagatai (Mongolian) Turkic as spoken in Western Delhi.

1674 - 1818Maratha Empire ruled through Central India speaking the Marathi language.

In 1719, Marathas marched to Delhi after defeating Sayyid Hussain Ali, the Mughal governor of the Deccan Plateau, and subsequently deposed the Mughal emperor. The power of the Mughal Emperors from this time was greatly diminished. In 1739 Delhi was sacked and looted by Nader Shah from Persia with 20,000-30,000 massacred.

Subsequently the Maratha empire invaded Bengal six times from 1741-1748. In a peace agreement in 1751, the Nawab of Bengal became a tributary to the Marathas until 1758 when it came under the British East India company.

1644 - 1947British Empire

Stalin is said to have observed that it was ridiculous . . . that a few hundred Englishmen should dominate India. Actually, the “few hundred” numbered just over a thousand, of whom one-fifth were at any time either sick or on leave. This, over a population of about 300 million in what is now India, Pakistan, Myanmar, and Bangladesh. Although certainly not as cruel as the Belgians in the Congo, the servants of the Raj and their compatriots (families, businessmen, missionaries, etc.)— about 100,000 in 1900 —were viewed as “lofty and contemptuous.” And they had their moments of cruelty as well.

  1. 1644 Fort St George built at Madras (Chennai), a trading settlement
  2. 1665 Humphrey Cooke becomes first British Governor of Bombay (Mumbai) after Portuguese King grants port to King Charles II as part of wedding dowry of daughter, Catherine of Braganza
  3. 1690 Calcutta in Bengal founded from three small villages by East India Company, with Fort William built in 1712.
  4. 1757 Robert Clive (1725-1774) also known as Clive of India, was a British officer and privateer who established the military and political supremacy of the East India Company in Bengal. After East India company officials killed in "Black Hole of Calcutta" in 1757, the Nawab of Bengal and a French contingent were defeated by him in battle.
  5. 1803 Delhi and the Deccan Plateau were ceded to the British in 1803 after the Peshwa (Prime Minister) of the Maratha Empire, Baji Rao II fled to the British for protection following the defeat of his forces by rival chiefs.
    In November 1817, Baji Rao formed a coalition with the nobles to attack the British following a revenue-sharing and territory dispute.
  6. 1818 Maharashtra, capital of the Marathi Empire, was surrendered to the British after Baji Rao was captured (and subsequently pensioned).
  7. 1832 Kachari Kingdom annexed (part of Assam) and then Assam in 1838.
  8. 1843 Sindh in modern day Pakistan captured by Charles Napier following Muslim insurrections.
  9. 1849 Sikh Empire in Punjab region defeated after two wars 1845-46 and 1848-49. The Sikh army surrender at Rawalpindi, with Afghan allies chased out of India.
  10. 1858 Mughal Shah rebellion of 1857 was followed by British Raj (Rule) over all India. Railways built, also Telegraph Roads Irrigation.
1947 - TodayRepublic of India becomes an independent nation within the British Commonwealth of Nations
Its Seven main Prime Ministers have been:
  1. Jawaharlal Nehru 1947-1964
  2. Indira Gandhi (his daughter) 1966-1977 and 1980-1984
  3. Rajiv Gandhi (her son) 1984-1989
  4. PV Narasimha Rao 1991-1996
  5. Atal Bihari Vajpayee 1998-2004
  6. Manmohan Singh 2004-2014
  7. Narendra Modi since 2014
Sent: Friday, January 17, 2014 1:40 PM
Subject: English in India and Sanskrit :-)

Hi all
https://en.wikipedia.org /wiki/List of countries by English-speaking population
Now, going through that link above, checking into English, yes, it's spoken by, perhaps, up to 10% of the people in India, mainly in the media and in the government, well they were ruled by England for a few hundred years, makes sense
But the other 90% of India have many languages and scripts, makes it tricky, Hindi, the "official" language is of course the most popular at around 40%, with all the other 1600 languages or so generally based, yes, mainly around the Sanskrit language. As a spoken language, "Vedic (chanted) Sanskrit" apparently lasted until about 400 BC, when it morphed into a written form "Classical Sanskrit".
If Josephus's comments are correct, probably are, that means Sanskrit was spoken by Joktan and his big family listed after the flood in Genesis 10, because they were the ones who moved into Ophir, by the Ganges, around 2000 BC, and also into the other parts of northern India, Havilah (where there was gold — and the gold was good — meaning, of course, you could build things with it).
Then around 400BC, it was Esther's husband Ahasuerus, King of the Medes (Aryans) and Persians (Elamites), who ruled over India. Esther 1:1. And so classical Sanskrit, in its written form, would have emerged from the script used by the conquering Medes (Aryans) — the "holy" people from the north, as they are now called.
Now going back to Joktan, see Genesis 10:25-30, he was the son of Eber (the Hebrew), along with his brother Peleg whose descendant was Abraham.
Thus, yes, after the tower of Babel, before which it says that all the people were together and they all spoke one language, this breakup by Josephus ties
1. the Sanskrit languages spoken by the people in India more closely with
2. the people of Israel (i.e. Jews speaking Hebrew),
3. Ishmael (i.e. Arabs speaking Arabic),
4. Aram (Syrians speaking Aramaic),
5. Assyrian (Iraqis speaking Assyrian), and
6. Elamites (Iranians speaking Persian)
as we go back to the languages spoken, and the script used by their fathers. There have been a lot of changes, of course, but unlike we Westerners, these families do, most of the time, prefer to stay in the one area.
So, going back through the dad, these are said to be the descendants of Shem.
And yes, staying put, he's generally seen as the more "spiritual" one, see Genesis 9:26-27.
So it's a bit tricky too, when people in those countries become anti-Semites, it means, not only spiritually, but even naturally, that they are at war with themselves. Ahh the Lord knows.
Blessings all Steve
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