History of India

YearDynasty, Languages Spoken and Notes
1500BC - 600BCJanapada Dynasty

It was the Vedic period that followed the flood.
Sanskrit was the main language, the Indo-"Aryan" speech of the nobles of India, related to the Persian language of "Iran".

No written records. Sanskrit was later written using the Brahmi script, a derivative of Aramaic (Syriac), of the same family as Arabic and Hebrew. It eventually evolved into today's Deva‑nagari script ("Divine writing") used to write modern day Hindi.

600BC - 400BCMahajanapadas 16 traditional Tribes.

Gautama Buddha was said to have been born at this time, traditionally speaking "noble" Sanskrit. Buddha was said to have been opposed to its use in his preaching, however, preferring the Magadhi Prakrit ("common speech") instead. Later his words were written using the Kharosthi script, another Aramaic-derived alphabet.

About 380BC the Persian (Parthian) empire reigned throughout India at the time of Queen Esther. The Persian language is known as Pahlavi,

At this time the "Bhagavad‑Gita" ("The Blessed One's Song") was thought to have been first written down in Sanskrit as a section inside the "Maha‑bharata" ("Great Story"), using the Brahmi script.
"Bog" subsequently became the name for "God" amongst the northern Scythian tribes (modern day Russia) while "Bharat" or "Bharata" became the common Indian name for "India".

345BC - 321BCNanda Empire

Kingdom of Magadha, a short-lived empire in North-East India. It was the time of Alexander the Great, followed by one of his generals, Seleucus in Syria, speaking Greek and Aramaic.

322BC - 180BCMaurya Empire

Buddhist King Ashoka issues edicts using three languages and four scripts Sanskrit (Brahmi) and Magadhi (Kharosthi), Aramaic, and Greek.

150BC - 400Indo-Scythians

Eurasian Nomads from the north. Scythian, Greek, and Pali become the common languages. Pali was a Magadhi related language, using the Kkarosthi script.

30 - 375Kushan Empire

traditionally said to be from China. Greek is now common speech, and after 127AD the language of Bactria was written using a Greek script. Diplomatic relations with China (Han dynasty), Persia, Rome, and Aksum dynasty in Northern Ethiopia.

240 - 590Gupta Empire

traditionally said to be from Bangla Desh in the east

606 - 647Harsha Vardhana Dynasty
730 - 1036Gurjara Pratihara Dynasty

traditionally said to be from Madhya Pradesh in Central India

831 - 1311Chandela Dynasty
977 - 1186Ghaznavid Dynasty

Turkic peoples from Ghazni in Afghanistan speaking Persian and Turkic

1206 - 1526Delhi Sultanate

Turkic peoples initially from Ghor in Afghanistan

1526 - 1857Mughal Empire

Turko-Mongol initially then with marriage alliances changing culture to Indo-Persian.
Golden Temple was built in 1589 followed by Taj Mahal built in 1643.
In 1626, Red Fort for the Army Camp in Delhi refers to the "Urdu Bazar", the Army Marketplace outside the camp with its language becoming the official language.

1674 - 1818Maratha Empire ruled through Central India speaking the Marathi language.
1644 - 1947British Empire
  1. 1644 Fort St George built at Madras (Chennai), a trading settlement
  2. 1665 Humphrey Cooke becomes first British Governor of Bombay (Mumbai) after Portuguese King grants port to King Charles II as part of wedding dowry of daughter, Catherine of Braganza
  3. 1690 Calcutta in Bengal founded from three small villages by East India Company with Fort William built in 1712.
  4. 1757 Robert Clive (1725-1774) also known as Clive of India, was a British officer and privateer who established the military and political supremacy of the East India Company in Bengal. After East India company officials killed in "Black Hole of Calcutta" in 1757, the Nawab of Bengal and small French contingent defeated by him in battle.
  5. 1803 Delhi and the Deccan Plateau ceded to British after the Peshwa (Prime Minister) of Maratha Empire fled to the British for protection when he was defeated in a battle with one of the Maratha chiefs.
    British now referring to language of Urdu Bazar simply as Urdu and use a Persian word Hindustani as the language of the country.
  6. 1818 Maharashtra, capital of the Marathi Empire, surrenders to British after the capture (and pensioning) of their peshwa (prime minister).
  7. 1832 Annexed Kachari Kingdom (part of Assam) and then Assam in 1838.
  8. 1843 Sindh in modern day Pakistan captured by Charles Napier following Muslim insurrections.
  9. 1849 Sikh Empire in Punjab region defeated after two wars 1845-46 and 1848-49. The Sikh army surrender at Rawalpindi, with Afghan allies chased out of India.
  10. 1858 Shah rebellion of 1857 was followed by British Raj (Rule) over all India. Railways Telegraph Roads Irrigation
1947 - TodayRepublic

** End of article