|Year||Dynasty, Languages Spoken and Notes|
It was the Vedic period that followed the flood.
No written records exist until the Ashoka edicts in 256BC.
|600BC - 400BC||Mahajanapadas 16 traditional Tribes.
Gautama Buddha was said to have been born at this time in Nepal, traditionally speaking "noble" Sanskrit. Buddha was said to have been opposed to its use in his preaching, however, preferring the Prakrit ("common speech") of Magadha, a language also known as Pali. Magadha was an important region in north-east India (modern day Bihar state).
|About 380BC the Persian (Parthian) empire reigned throughout India at the time of Queen Esther.
"Bog" became the name for "God" amongst the northern Scythian tribes (modern day Russia) while "Bharat" or "Bharata" became the common name for "India".
A short-lived empire in the Magadha region. It was followed by Alexander the Great's invasion. His empire was subsequently ruled by one of his generals, Seleucus in Syria, with Greek and Aramaic becoming common languages throughout his empire.
|322BC - 180BC||Maurya Empire
Starting about 256BC, Buddhist King Ashoka issued over 30 copies of Prakrit ("common speech") edicts on pillars and cave walls in the Brahmi script, except in north-west India where Kharosthi, Aramaic and Greek alphabets were used.
These are the earliest writings in India in existence. The Brahmi script is thought to be a derivative of Aramaic (Syriac), the same family as Arabic and Hebrew. Later it evolved into today's Deva‑nagari script ("Divine writing") used to write modern day Hindi.
In north-west India (modern day Pakistan) the ancient kingdom of Gandhara used the Kharosthi script, another Aramaic-derived alphabet.
|150BC - 400||Indo-Scythians
Eurasian Nomads from the north. Scythian, Greek, and Pali are the common languages.
|30 - 375||Kushan Empire
traditionally said to be from China. Greek is commonly used, and after 127AD the language of Bactria in north-west India (modern day Pakistan) was written using a Greek script. Diplomatic relations formed with China's Han dynasty, Persia, Rome, and Aksum dynasty in Northern Ethiopia.
|240 - 590||Gupta Empire
traditionally said to be from the east (modern day Bangla Desh)
|606 - 647||Harsha Vardhana Dynasty|
|730 - 1036||Gurjara Pratihara Dynasty
traditionally said to be from Madhya Pradesh in Central India
|831 - 1311||Chandela Dynasty|
|977 - 1186||Ghaznavid Dynasty
Turkic peoples from Ghazni in Afghanistan speaking Persian and Turkic
|1206 - 1526||Delhi Sultanate
Turkic peoples initially from Ghor in Afghanistan
|1526 - 1857||Mughal Empire
Turko-Mongol dynasty initially, then with marriage alliances changing their culture to Indo-Persian.
|1674 - 1818||Maratha Empire ruled through Central India speaking the Marathi language.|
|1644 - 1947||British Empire
|1947 - Today||Republic of India becomes an independent nation within the British Commonwealth of Nations
Its Seven main Prime Ministers have been:
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