|Year||Dynasty, Languages Spoken and Notes|
It was the Vedic period that followed the flood.
No written records. Sanskrit was later written using the Brahmi script, a derivative of Aramaic (Syriac), of the same family as Arabic and Hebrew. It eventually evolved into today's Deva‑nagari script ("Divine writing") used to write modern day Hindi.
|600BC - 400BC||Mahajanapadas 16 traditional Tribes.
Gautama Buddha was said to have been born at this time, traditionally speaking "noble" Sanskrit. Buddha was said to have been opposed to its use in his preaching, however, preferring the Magadhi Prakrit ("common speech") instead. Later his words were written using the Kharosthi script, another Aramaic-derived alphabet.
|About 380BC the Persian (Parthian) empire reigned throughout India at the time of Queen Esther. The Persian language is known as Pahlavi,
At this time the "Bhagavad‑Gita" ("The Blessed One's Song") was thought to have been first written down in Sanskrit as a section inside the "Maha‑bharata" ("Great Story"), using the Brahmi script.
|345BC - 321BC||Nanda Empire
Kingdom of Magadha, a short-lived empire in North-East India. It was the time of Alexander the Great, followed by one of his generals, Seleucus in Syria, speaking Greek and Aramaic.
|322BC - 180BC||Maurya Empire
Buddhist King Ashoka issues edicts using three languages and four scripts Sanskrit (Brahmi) and Magadhi (Kharosthi), Aramaic, and Greek.
|150BC - 400||Indo-Scythians
Eurasian Nomads from the north. Scythian, Greek, and Pali become the common languages. Pali was a Magadhi related language, using the Kkarosthi script.
|30 - 375||Kushan Empire
traditionally said to be from China. Greek is now common speech, and after 127AD the language of Bactria was written using a Greek script. Diplomatic relations with China (Han dynasty), Persia, Rome, and Aksum dynasty in Northern Ethiopia.
|240 - 590||Gupta Empire
traditionally said to be from Bangla Desh in the east
|606 - 647||Harsha Vardhana Dynasty|
|730 - 1036||Gurjara Pratihara Dynasty
traditionally said to be from Madhya Pradesh in Central India
|831 - 1311||Chandela Dynasty|
|977 - 1186||Ghaznavid Dynasty
Turkic peoples from Ghazni in Afghanistan speaking Persian and Turkic
|1206 - 1526||Delhi Sultanate
Turkic peoples initially from Ghor in Afghanistan
|1526 - 1857||Mughal Empire
Turko-Mongol initially then with marriage alliances changing culture to Indo-Persian.
|1674 - 1818||Maratha Empire ruled through Central India speaking the Marathi language.|
|1644 - 1947||British Empire
|1947 - Today||Republic|
** End of article