World Leaders and Capital Cities 1st November 2020
Locate E I P T
|Countries ▲▼||Leader and their Current Age|
|Angela Merkel Chancellor 66|
(husband Joachim Sauer 71)
Click here for some of its history
Capital City: Berlin. Founding Year: 1237
|France||Emmanuel Macron President 42|
(wife Brigitte Macron 67)
Click here for some notes on France since 1789
Capital City: Paris. Founding Year: Circa 250BC
|Italy||Giuseppe Conte PM (since 1 Jun 2018) 56|
(partner Olivia Paladino)
Click here for some notes on Sicily and Naples in the south-west. Traditionally close to the west (Spain).
Click here for some notes on Venice in the north-east. Traditionally close to the east (Austria).
Click here for Florence, Tuscany in the north-west, homeplace of the Medici Family, the Renaissance and the modern Italian language. Traditionally close to Rome and the Royal House of Savoy, who with the aid of France engineered Italy's reunification 1859-1870 from Sardinia, and its capital Turin on the north west border surrounded by the Alps.
Capital City: Rome. Founding Year: Circa 753BC
|UK||Boris Johnson PM (since 24 Jul 2019) 56|
(partner Carrie Symonds 32)
succeeding Theresa May PM 64
Click here for some of England's history
Capital City: London. Year: Circa 47AD
|Canada||Justin Trudeau PM 48|
(wife Sophie Gregoire Trudeau 45)
Click here for some of Canada's history
Founding Province: Quebec. Year: 1608
Capital City: Ottawa. Founding Year: 1855 with the renaming of Bytown.
|USA||Donald Trump President 74|
(wife Melania Trump 50)
Click here for some of US's history
Major City: New York. Founding Year: 1624 as New Amsterdam. Renamed New York in 1664.
Capital City: Washington D.C.. Founding Year: 1790 from two pre-existing settlements founded in 1749 and 1751.
|Tonga||Tupou VI King 61|
(wife Nanasipau'u_Tuku'aho 66)
Click here for some of Tonga's history
Capital City: Nuku'alofa. Formalized: 1875
|NZ||Jacinda Ardern PM (since 26 October 2017) 40|
(partner Clarke Gayford 44)
Click here for some of New Zealand's history within the Commonwealth
Major City: Auckland. Founding Year: Circa 1350
Capital City: Wellington. Founding Year: Circa 1280
|PNG||James Marape PM (since 30 May 2019) 49|
(wife Rachael Marape)
Click here for Papua New Guinea Timeline
Capital City: Port Moresby. A trading village renamed in 1873. Became a British Protectorate in 1888 following German colonisation in the north.
|Scott Morrison PM (since 24 Aug 2018) 52|
(wife Jenny Morrison 52)
Josh Frydenberg (Treasurer) 49
Click here for New South Wales Timeline
Some Famous Aussie Politicians
Anthony Albanese Opposition Leader 57
Bill Shorten 53
Some Famous Aussie Writers
Frances Whiting (about) mid 50s
Click here for some editorials written by Greg in The Australian (2007-2018)
Bernard Salt 63
Major City: Sydney. Founding Year: 1788
Capital City: Canberra. Parliament House Opened: 1927
|Benjamin Netanyahu PM 71|
(wife Sara Netanyahu 61)
Click here for the latest news on Israel
Capital City: Jerusalem. Called Salem circa 2000BC. Renamed as City of David circa 968BC (previously named Jebus).
|Gaza Strip||Ismail Haniyeh Hamas Chief 58
Hamas, the Islamic Resistance Movement was founded in 1987 as an offshoot of the Egyptian Muslim Brotherhood. It has been the de facto governing authority of the Gaza Strip since its takeover of that area in 2007.
Major City: Gaza City. Founding Year: Circa 2000BC
|West Bank||Mahmoud Abbas President 84|
(wife Amina Abbas)
Capital City (de facto): Ramallah. Founding Year: Circa 1000AD Crusader era
|Turkey||Recep Erdogan President 66|
(wife Emine Erdogan 65)
Click here for a recent article on the Turkish President in the Weekend Australian
Major City: Istanbul. Founding Year: Circa 660BC as Byzantium. Made Eastern Capital City in 324AD by Roman Emperor Constantine with the name Constantinople. Name changed to Istanbul in 1923.
Capital City: Ankara. Founding Year: Circa 2000BC. Made Capital City in 1923.
|Egypt||Abdel Fattah el-Sisi President 65|
(wife Entissar Amer 63)
Capital City: Cairo. Founding Year: Circa 2000BC as Memphis, the northern capital of Egypt. Also known as Masr, from Mizraim, Noah's grandson via Ham, who settled there after the flood. Renamed al-Qahirah ("Cairo") in Arabic in 973.
|Lebanon||Michel Aoun pronounced Mee-shell Oww-an President 85 (wife Nadia El-Chami)|
Hassan Diab PM 61 since Jan 2020 (wife Nuwar Mawlawi)
Click here for Lebanese Civil War 1975-1990, during which time Michel Aoun served as Brigadier-General. Granted asylum in France when Syrian soldiers attacked and occupied Lebanon 1990-2005.
Capital City: Beirut. Founding Year: Circa 2000BC. Early Canaanite/Phoenician name meaning "The Wells". Made Capital City of Lebanon in 1943.
|Syria||Bashar al-Assad President 55|
(wife Asma al-Assad 45)
Click here for rulers of Syria since 1920
Capital City: Damascus. Founding Year: Circa 1400BC.
|Jordan||Abdullah II King 58|
(wife Queen Rania 50)
Capital City: Amman. Founding Year: Circa 2000BC. Capital city for the Ammonite tribe.
|Saudi Arabia||Salman King 84 (wife Fahda bint Falah Al Sultan)
Mohammad bin Salman Crown Prince (since 21 June 2017) 35 (wife Princess Sarah bint Mashhoor bin Abdulaziz Al Saud)
Click here for Saudi royal family background
Capital City: Riyadh pronounced Ree-yadd. Founding Year: 1744.
With regard to the failed state of Yemen directly to the south click here for its current status. Yemen’s war erupted in 2014 when the Iran-supported Houthi rebels, a tribal militia from the country’s north, stormed the capital Sanaa and captured it. Saudi Arabia viewed the rebels presence on its southern border and Iran’s support for the movement as a dangerous expansion of Tehran’s regional footprint and formed an international, US-supported coalition to fight it. Subsequently the Saudis have imposed an air land and sea blockade on Houthi areas around Sanaa, with imports subject to coalition approval, driving up prices.
Currently, there are three Presidents
|Iraq||Adil Abdul-Mahdi PM (since 25 Oct 2018) 78 (wife Rajah)|
Capital City: Baghdad. Founding Year: 762AD just north of ancient Babylon.
|Iran||Ali Khamenei Supreme Leader (Ayatollah) 81 (wife Mansoureh Khojaste Khamenei)|
Hassan Rouhani President 71 (wife Sahebeh Rouhani)
Aga Khan IV Prince Shah Karim Al Hussaini born in Geneva Switzerland. 83
Click here for the latest news on Iran
Capital City: Tehran. Founding Year: 1554 when a bazaar and a square town wall with four gates were built. Previously it was an unwalled region with just 1,000 residents. Circa 1778, a citadel (today's Golestan Palace) was built by
Click here for Iran's earlier capitals back to Susa (or Shushan) at the time of Daniel, Cyrus the Great and Esther.
|Vladimir Putin President 68 (currently single)|
Capital City: Moscow. Founding Year: 1147
|Pakistan||Imran Khan PM (since 18 Aug 2018) 68|
(wife Bushra Bibi Khan 46)
Click here for rulers of Pakistan since 1973
Major City: Karachi. Founding Year: 1729
Capital City: Islamabad. Founding Year: 1960
|India||Narendra Modi PM 70 (currently estranged from wife)|
India is the second most populated country in the world.
Click here for India's eight most widely spoken languages and scripts.
Click here for India's history after Noah's flood.
Capital City: New Delhi. Continuous settlement since about 6th century BC. Founding Year as a walled city, now known as Old Delhi: 1648. From 1857 the British capital was in Calcutta. The Foundation Stone for New Delhi was laid in 1911 by King George V, and the new capital was inaugurated in 1931.
Dalai Lama 85 (a monk since childhood)
|Bangladesh||Sheikh Hasina PM 73 (currently widowed)|
Capital City: Dakha. Founding Year: 1608
A brief history of Bangladesh
War broke out in March 1971. Her father was arrested and taken to Pakistan. Bangladesh formed a provisional government, with her absent father named as President in April. They were aided by India at this time, and had Calcutta as the capital-in-exile.
|Myanmar (Burma)||Win Myint President since 2018, age 68 (wife Cho Cho)|
Aung San Suu Kyi Owwn Saan Soo Chee
Click here for some further notes on Burma
Major City: Yangon (also known as Rangoon). Founding Year: Circa 1028. In 2006, the military government relocated the administrative functions to the purpose-built city of Naypyidaw.
|China||Xi Jinping President 67|
(wife Peng Liyuan 57)
China (including Tibet) is the most populated country in the world.
Click here for a history of China's dynasties (with censuses).
Capital City: Beijing. Founding Year: 1045BC
|Korea North||Kim Jong-Un Supreme Leader age 37 according to South Korea, 36 according to US records|
(wife Ri Sol-ju)
In 1910 Japan annexed the whole country. Following Japan's defeat and with Soviet troops advancing, the country was divided at the 38th parallel by US troops on 10 August 1945. With Korea's division, between 400,000 to 4 million refugees fled south 1945-1950. In May 1946 it became illegal to cross the 38th Parallel without a permit.
In 1950 North Korea invaded South Korea with the aid of Stalin. They captured Seoul in late June 1950, were forced out by the UN in September, recaptured it with the aid of Mao's army in early January 1951, before being forced out again in March. A long stalemate followed, arguments over POWs with numerous North Korean and Chinese POWs not wanting to be returned to their homeland. Finally an armistice was arranged in 1953 with ⅔ of the Chinese POWs heading to Taiwan. Both sides lost 1 to 1½ million people each during the war, the UN, well, mainly the US, assisting the south.
Click here for some recent news of North Korea
Capital City: Pyongyang. Founding Year (according to Korean mythology): 1122BC
|Korea South||Moon Jae-In President (since 10 May 2017) 67|
(wife Kim Jung-sook 65)
With division of the country in 1945, Seoul became the south's new capital.
Capital City: Seoul. Founding Year: 18BC
|Japan||Yoshihide Suga PM 71 Yo-shee-heeda Soo-gar since Sep 2020 replacing Shinzo Abe|
(wife Mariko Suga)
Naruhito Emperor (since 1 May 2019) 60
Capital City: Tokyo. First fortified (from a small fishing village): Circa 1200
|Philippines||Rodrigo Duterte President 75|
(partner Cielito "Honeylet" Avanceña See-elito Avan-senya)
Click here for the US Spanish War of 1898
Capital City: Manila. First Fortified (for trading): Circa 1200
|Vietnam||Nguyen Phu Trong (pronounced Wen Phoo Trong) General Secretary and President 76|
Click here for a list of presidents of North Vietnam 1945-1976 followed by the uniting of north and south.
Click here for some historical notes of Vietnam (French Indochina) that included Cambodia (and Laos).
Major City: Ho Chi Minh City also known as Saigon. Founding Year as a Temple site: Circa 400AD. First settled about 1000AD.
Capital City: Hanoi. Founding Year: 1010
|Cambodia||Hun Sen PM 68|
(wife Bun Rany Hun Sen 65)
Became Prime Minister in 1985, but has had a significant role in Cambodia since 1975, the rule of the Khmer Rouge, and the fall of the US backed Khmer Republic (1970-1975). Note, between 1975-1979 under Pol Pot's regime, all monetary exchange in Cambodia was abolished. The Cambodian riel was reintroduced following Vietnam's invasion in 1979.
Capital City: Phnom Penh. Founding Year: 1372
|Thailand||Prayut Chan-o-cha PM 66|
(wife Naraporn Chan-o-cha 66)
Maha Vajiralongkorn (Rama X) King (since 2016) age 68 (current wife Suthida)
Click here for some further notes on Thailand
Capital City: Bangkok. Founding Year: 1782
|Malaysia||Muhyiddin Yassin Current PM 73 (since 1 March 2020)|
(wife Noorainee Abdul Rahman 71)
Mahathir Mohamad previous PM 95
(wife Siti Hasmah Mohamad Ali 94)
Click here for background notes to its currency starting with the British in 1826.
Click here for a timeline snapshot of British Malaya and British Borneo from Wikipedia
Click here for some further notes
Capital City: Kuala Lumpur. Founding Year: Circa 1857
|Indonesia||Joko Widodo President 59
(wife Iriana 57)
Capital City: Jakarta (known to the Dutch as Batavia). Founding Year: Circa 400AD
Click here for some notes on Marx 1818-1883 and Darwin 1809-1882
Click here for CS Lewis 1898-1963 and Joy Davidman 1915-1960
Click here for Jordan Peterson
Click here for Merlin Carothers and here for Derek Prince
** End of List