World Leaders and Capital Cities 1st July 2020

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Countries ▲▼Leader and their Current Age

The West

Angela Merkel Chancellor 65

Click here for some of its history

Capital City: Berlin. Founding Year: 1237

FranceEmmanuel Macron President 42

(wife Brigitte 67)

Click here for some notes on France since 1789

Capital City: Paris. Founding Year: Circa 250BC

ItalyGiuseppe Conte PM (since 1 Jun 2018) 55

Click here for some notes on Sicily and Naples in the south-west. Traditionally close to the west (Spain).

Click here for some notes on Venice in the north-east. Traditionally close to the east (Austria).

Click here for Florence, Tuscany in the north-west, homeplace of the Medici Family, the Renaissance and the modern Italian language. Traditionally close to Rome and the Royal House of Savoy, who with the aid of France engineered Italy's reunification from Sardinia 1859-1870.

Capital City: Rome. Founding Year: Circa 753BC

UKBoris Johnson PM (since 24 Jul 2019) 56
succeeding Theresa May PM 63

Click here for some of England's history

Capital City: London. Year: Circa 47AD

CanadaJustin Trudeau PM 48

Click here for some of Canada's history

Founding Province: Quebec. Year: 1608

Capital City: Ottawa. Founding Year: 1855 with the renaming of Bytown.

USADonald Trump President 74

Click here for some of US's history

Major City: New York. Founding Year: 1624 as New Amsterdam. Renamed New York in 1664.

Capital City: Washington D.C.. Founding Year: 1790 from two pre-existing settlements founded in 1749 and 1751.

TongaTupou VI King 60

Click here for some of Tonga's history

Capital City: Nuku'alofa. Formalized: 1875

NZJacinda Ardern PM (since 26 October 2017) 39

Click here for some of New Zealand's history within the Commonwealth

Major City: Auckland. Founding Year: Circa 1350

Capital City: Wellington. Founding Year: Circa 1280

PNGJames Marape PM (since 30 May 2019) 49

Click here for Papua New Guinea Timeline

Capital City: Port Moresby. A trading village renamed in 1873. Became a British Protectorate in 1888 following German colonisation in the north.



Scott Morrison PM (since 24 Aug 2018) 52

Click here for New South Wales Timeline

Some Famous Aussie Politicians

Anthony Albanese Opposition Leader 57

Bill Shorten 53

Alexander Downer 68
That London conversation with George Papadopoulos (Trump's adviser) in May 2016

Some Famous Aussie Writers
Nikki Gemmell 54

Frances Whiting (about) mid 50s

Greg Sheridan 64

Click here for some editorials written by Greg in The Australian (2007-2018)

Bernard Salt 63

Phillip Adams 80

Famous Footballer
Israel Folau 31

Major City: Sydney. Founding Year: 1788

Capital City: Canberra. Parliament House Opened: 1927


Middle East

Benjamin Netanyahu PM 70

Click here for the latest news on Israel

Capital City: Jerusalem. Called Salem circa 2000BC. Renamed as City of David circa 968BC (previously named Jebus).

Gaza StripIsmail Haniyeh PM 58

Major City: Gaza City. Founding Year: Circa 2000BC

West BankMahmoud Abbas President 84

Capital City (de facto): Ramallah. Founding Year: Circa 1000AD Crusader era

TurkeyRecep Erdogan President 66

Click here for a recent article on the Turkish President in the Weekend Australian

Major City: Istanbul. Founding Year: Circa 660BC as Byzantium. Made Eastern Capital City in 324AD by Roman Emperor Constantine with the name Constantinople. Name changed to Istanbul in 1923.

Capital City: Ankara. Founding Year: Circa 2000BC. Made Capital City in 1923.

EgyptAbdel Fattah el-Sisi President 65

Capital City: Cairo. Founding Year: Circa 2000BC as Memphis, the northern capital of Egypt. Also known as Masr, from Mizraim, Noah's grandson via Ham, who settled there after the flood. Renamed al-Qahirah Play ("Cairo") in Arabic in 973.

LebanonMichel Aoun (pronounced Mee-shell Oww-an) President 85

Hassan Diab PM 61 since Jan 2020

Click here for Lebanese Civil War 1975-1990, during which time Michel Aoun served as Brigadier-General. Granted asylum in France when Syrian soldiers attacked and occupied Lebanon 1990-2005.

Capital City: Beirut. Founding Year: Circa 2000BC. Early Canaanite/Phoenician name meaning "The Wells". Made Capital City of Lebanon in 1943.

SyriaBashar al-Assad President 54

Click here for rulers of Syria since 1920

Capital City: Damascus. Founding Year: Circa 1400BC.

JordanAbdullah II King 58

Capital City: Amman. Founding Year: Circa 2000BC. Capital city for the Ammonite tribe.

Saudi ArabiaSalman King 84

Mohammad bin Salman Crown Prince (since 21 June 2017) 34

Click here for Saudi royal family background

Capital City: Riyadh pronounced Ree-yadd. Founding Year: 1744.

With regard to the failed state of Yemen directly to the south click here for Yemen's current status, there are currently three Presidents

  1. President Hadi, who resigned 21 Jan 2015 and was placed under virtual house arrest. On 21 Feb 2015 in Aden he re-declared himself President. He has been living in Riyadh since 26 March 2015.
  2. Mahdi al-Mashat, acting President of the Iran-funded Houthi movement in Sanaa, and
  3. Aidarus al-Zoubaidi, President of the Southern Transitional Council in Aden.
IraqAdil Abdul-Mahdi PM (since 25 Oct 2018) 78

Capital City: Baghdad. Founding Year: 762AD just north of ancient Babylon.

IranAli Khamenei Supreme Leader (Ayatollah) 81

Hassan Rouhani President 71

Aga Khan IV Prince Shah Karim Al Hussaini born in Geneva Switzerland. 83
His father (number III) was born in Karachi (first capital city in modern day Pakistan). His grandfather (number II) and great grandfather (number I) were both born in Iran in the 1800s. He is said to be a direct lineal descendant of Mohammed through Mohammed's cousin and son-in-law, Ali, considered the first Imam in Shia Islam, and Ali's wife Fatima az-Zahra, Mohammed's daughter from his first marriage. While the Aga Khan has British citizenship and travels worldwide continually, his primary residence is in Gouvieux, 65 kms north of Paris France.

Click here for the latest news on Iran

Capital City: Tehran. Founding Year: 1554 when a bazaar and a square town wall with four gates were built. Previously it was an unwalled region with just 1,000 residents. Circa 1778, a citadel (today's Golestan Palace) was built by Karim Khan Zand. In 1786 Tehran was made the capital of Iran, and by 1807 its population had grown to 50,000. Greater Tehran now includes Rhages, a prominent city that belonged to the Medes.

Click here for Iran's earlier capitals back to Susa (or Shushan) at the time of Daniel, Cyrus the Great and Esther.



Vladimir Putin President 67

Capital City: Moscow. Founding Year: 1147

PakistanImran Khan PM (since 18 Aug 2018) 67

Click here for rulers of Pakistan since 1973

Major City: Karachi. Founding Year: 1729

Capital City: Islamabad. Founding Year: 1960

IndiaNarendra Modi PM 69
India is the second most populated country in the world.
Click here for India's eight most widely spoken languages and scripts.

Click here for India's history after Noah's flood.

Capital City: New Delhi. Continuous settlement since about 6th century BC. Founding Year as a walled city, now known as Old Delhi: 1648. From 1857 the British capital was in Calcutta. The Foundation Stone for New Delhi was laid in 1911 by King George V, and the new capital was inaugurated in 1931.

Dalai Lama 84
As Leader of Tibetan government in exile, the Dalai Lama's residence is in Dharamshala in the far north of India. Several thousand Tibetan refugees live in exile in the suburb of McLeod Ganj where he resides.
Regarding the Tibet Autonomous Region, a large province in south-west China, it is sparsely populated – just 3 million. On Tibet's southern border with Nepal (Pop. 29 million) is Mount Everest, the highest point on earth.

BangladeshSheikh Hasina PM 72

Capital City: Dakha. Founding Year: 1608

A brief history of Bangladesh
After independence from India in 1947, East Bengal province, and then East Pakistan as it became known after 1955, were ruled by Pakistan in the west. With its language and other ethnic differences, Bengalis felt their needs were being continually overlooked by Pakistan. Hasina's father, Sheikh Mujib Rahman, played an important role at this time forming the Awami Muslim League.

War broke out in March 1971. Her father was arrested and taken to Pakistan. Bangladesh formed a provisional government, with her absent father named as President in April. They were aided by India at this time, and had Calcutta as the capital-in-exile.
In Dec 1971 Pakistan surrendered, Bangladesh declared its independence, and her father became its Prime Minister. It was finally recognised by Pakistan in Feb 1974. After suffering a major famine that same year, in Jan 1975 he became President once again, but now dissolved parliament, implementing a one party state, closing all newspapers except for four nationalised ones. Next he, his wife and most of his family were assassinated in Aug 1975 by junior army officers, and in the turmoil that followed, the executioners were granted immunity from prosecution. However, after Sheikh Hasina's election in 1996, that immunity was revoked.

Myanmar (Burma)Win Myint President (since 2018) 68

Aung San Suu Kyi (Owwn Saan Soo Chee) State Counsellor (since 2016) 75

Click here for some further notes on Burma

Major City: Yangon (also known as Rangoon). Founding Year: Circa 1028. In 2006, the military government relocated the administrative functions to the purpose-built city of Naypyidaw.

ChinaXi Jinping President 67

China (including Tibet) is the most populated country in the world.

Click here for a history of China's dynasties (with censuses).

Capital City: Beijing. Founding Year: 1045BC

Korea NorthKim Jong-Un Supreme Leader 37 (South Korea) 36 (US records)

In 1910 Japan annexed the whole country. Following Japan's defeat and with Soviet troops advancing, the country was divided at the 38th parallel by US troops on 10 August 1945. With Korea's division, between 400,000 to 4 million refugees fled south 1945-1950. In May 1946 it became illegal to cross the 38th Parallel without a permit.

In 1950 North Korea invaded South Korea with the aid of Stalin. They captured Seoul in late June 1950, were forced out by the UN in September, recaptured it with the aid of Mao's army in early January 1951, before being forced out again in March. A long stalemate followed, arguments over POWs with numerous North Korean and Chinese POWs not wanting to be returned to their homeland. Finally an armistice was arranged in 1953 with ⅔ of the Chinese POWs heading to Taiwan. Both sides lost 1 to 1½ million people each during the war, the UN, well, mainly the US, assisting the south.

Click here for some recent news of North Korea

Capital City: Pyongyang. Founding Year (according to Korean mythology): 1122BC

Korea SouthMoon Jae-In President (since 10 May 2017) 67

With division of the country in 1945, Seoul became the south's new capital.

Capital City: Seoul. Founding Year: 18BC

JapanShinzo Abe PM 65

Naruhito Emperor (since 1 May 2019) 60

Capital City: Tokyo. First fortified (from a small fishing village): Circa 1200

PhilippinesRodrigo Duterte President 75

Click here for the US Spanish War of 1898

Capital City: Manila. First Fortified (for trading): Circa 1200

VietnamNguyen Phu Trong (Nwen Phoo Trong) General Secretary and President 76

Click here for a list of presidents of North Vietnam 1945-1976 followed by the uniting of north and south.

After the French left in 1955, South Vietnam had two presidents
1. Ngo Dinh Diem until 1963 followed by 2. Nguyen Van Thieu until the fall of Saigon (Ho Chi Minh city) in 1976.

Click here for some historical notes of Vietnam (French Indochina) that included Cambodia (and Laos).

Major City: Ho Chi Minh City also known as Saigon. Founding Year as a Temple site: Circa 400AD. First settled about 1000AD.

Capital City: Hanoi. Founding Year: 1010

CambodiaHun Sen PM 67

Became Prime Minister in 1985, but has had a significant role in Cambodia since 1975, the rule of the Khmer Rouge, and the fall of the US backed Khmer Republic (1970-1975). Note, between 1975-1979 under Pol Pot's regime, all monetary exchange in Cambodia was abolished. The Cambodian riel was reintroduced following Vietnam's invasion in 1979.

Capital City: Phnom Penh. Founding Year: 1372

ThailandPrayut Chan-o-cha PM 66

Maha Vajiralongkorn (Rama X) King (since 2016) 67

Click here for some further notes on Thailand

Capital City: Bangkok. Founding Year: 1782

MalaysiaMuhyiddin Yassin Current PM 73 (since 1 March 2020)

Mahathir Mohamad previous PM 94

Click here for background notes to its currency starting with the British in 1826.

Click here for a timeline snapshot of British Malaya and British Borneo from Wikipedia

Click here for some further notes

Capital City: Kuala Lumpur. Founding Year: Circa 1857

IndonesiaJoko Widodo President 59

Capital City: Jakarta (known to the Dutch as Batavia). Founding Year: Circa 400AD

Click here for some notes on Marx 1818-1883 and Darwin 1809-1882

Click here for CS Lewis 1898-1963 and Joy Davidman 1915-1960

Click here for Jordan Peterson

Click here for Merlin Carothers and here for Derek Prince

** End of List

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