Trips to the Moon

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Mission ▲▼ Mass (kg) Launch vehicle Launch date Goal Result
USSR Luna-01 361 Semyorka 8K72 2 January 1959 Impact Partial success first spacecraft to reach escape velocity, lunar flyby, solar orbit; missed the Moon
USSR Luna-02 390 Semyorka 8K72 12 September 1959 Impact Success first lunar impact
USSR Luna-03 270 Semyorka 8K72 4 October 1959 Flyby Success first photos of lunar far side
US Pioneer 4 6 Juno 3 March 1959 Flyby Partial success first US craft to reach escape velocity, lunar flyby too far to shoot photos due to targeting error; solar orbit
US Ranger 4 331 Atlas Agena 23 April 1962 Landing Partial success first U.S. spacecraft to reach another celestial body; crash impact no photos returned
US Ranger 7 367 Atlas Agena 28 July 1964 Impact Success returned 4308 photos, crash impact
US Ranger 8 367 Atlas Agena 17 February 1965 Impact Success returned 7137 photos, crash impact
US Ranger 9 367 Atlas Agena 21 March 1965 Impact Success returned 5814 photos, crash impact
USSR Luna-09 1580 Semyorka 8K78 31 January 1966 Landing Success first lunar soft landing, numerous photos
Oceanus Procellarum
7.13N 64.37W
USSR Luna-13 1580 Semyorka 8K78 21 December 1966 Landing Success second lunar soft landing, numerous photos
Oceanus Procellarum
1852'N 623'W
USSR Luna-16 5,600 Proton 12 September 1970 Sample return Success returned 0.10 kg of Moon soil back to Earth
Mare Fecunditatis
000.68S 056.30E
USSR Luna-17 5,700 Proton 10 November 1970 Lunar rover Success Lunokhod-1 rover traveled 10.5 km across lunar surface
Mare Imbrium
038.28N 325.00E
USSR Luna-20 5,727 Proton 14 February 1972 Sample return Success returned 0.05 kg of Moon soil back to Earth
Mare Fecunditatis
003.57N 056.50E
USSR Luna-21 5,950 Proton 8 January 1973 Lunar rover Success Lunokhod-2 rover traveled 37.0 km across lunar surface
LeMonnier Crater
025.85N 030.45E
USSR Luna-24 5,800 Proton 9 August 1976 Sample return Success returned 0.17 kg of Moon soil back to Earth
Mare Crisium
012.25N 062.20E
US Surveyor 1 292 Atlas Centaur 30 May 1966 Landing Success 11,000 pictures returned, first U.S. Moon landing
Oceanus Procellarum
002.45S 043.22W
US Surveyor 3 302 Atlas Centaur 20 April 1967 Landing Success 6,000 pictures returned; trench dug to 17.5 cm depth after 18 hr of robot arm use
Oceanus Procellarum
002.94S 336.66E
US Surveyor 5 303 Atlas Centaur 8 September 1967 Landing Success 19,000 photos returned, first use of alpha scatter soil composition monitor
Mare Tranquillitatis
001.41N 023.18E
US Surveyor 6 300 Atlas Centaur 7 November 1967 Landing Success 30,000 photos returned, robot arm and alpha scatter science, engine restart, second landing 2.5 m away from first
Sinus Medii
000.46N 358.63E
US Surveyor 7 306 Atlas Centaur 7 January 1968 Landing Success 21,000 photos returned; robot arm and alpha scatter science; laser beams from Earth detected
Tycho Crater
041.01S 348.59E
USSR Luna-10 1,582 Molniya-M 31 March 1966 Lunar orbiter Success 2,738 km x 2,088 km x 72 deg orbit, 178 m period, 60-day science mission
USSR Luna-11 1,640 Molniya-M 24 August 1966 Lunar orbiter Success 2,931 km x 1,898 km x 27 deg orbit, 178 m period, 38-day science mission
USSR Luna-12 1,620 Molniya-M 22 October 1966 Lunar orbiter Success 2,938 km x 1,871 km x 10 deg orbit, 205 m period, 89-day science mission
USSR Cosmos-159 1,700 Molniya-M 17 May 1967 Prototype test Success high Earth orbit crewed landing communications gear radio calibration test
USSR Luna-14 1,700 Molniya-M 7 April 1968 Lunar orbiter Success 870 km x 160 km x 42 deg orbit, 160 m period, unstable orbit, radio calibration test?
USSR Luna-19 5,700 Proton 28 September 1971 Lunar orbiter Success 140 km x 140 km x 41 deg orbit, 121 m period, 388-day science mission
USSR Luna-22 5,700 Proton 29 May 1974 Lunar orbiter Success 222 km x 219 km x 19 deg orbit, 130 m period, 521-day science mission
US Lunar Orbiter 1 386 Atlas Agena 10 August 1966 Lunar orbiter Success 1,160 km X 189 km x 12 deg orbit, 208 m period, 80-day photography mission
US Lunar Orbiter 2 386 Atlas Agena 6 November 1966 Lunar orbiter Success 1,860 km X 52 km x 12 deg orbit, 208 m period, 339-day photography mission
US Lunar Orbiter 3 386 Atlas Agena 5 February 1967 Lunar orbiter Success 1,860 km X 52 km x 21 deg orbit, 208 m period, 246-day photography mission
US Lunar Orbiter 4 386 Atlas Agena 4 May 1967 Lunar orbiter Success 6,111 km X 2,706 km x 86 deg orbit, 721 m period, 180-day photography mission
US Lunar Orbiter 5 386 Atlas Agena 1 August 1967 Lunar orbiter Success 6,023 km X 195 km x 85 deg orbit, 510 m period, 183-day photography mission
USSR Cosmos-146 5,400 Proton 10 March 1967 High Earth Orbit
uncrewed
Partial success Successfully reached high Earth orbit, but became stranded and was unable to initiate controlled high speed atmospheric reentry test
USSR Cosmos-154 5,400 Proton 8 April 1967 High Earth Orbit
uncrewed
Partial success Successfully reached high Earth orbit, but became stranded and was unable to initiate controlled high speed atmospheric reentry test
USSR Zond-4 5,140 Proton 2 March 1968 High Earth Orbit
uncrewed
Partial success launched successfully to 300,000 km high Earth orbit, high speed reentry test guidance malfunction, intentional self-destruct to prevent landfall outside Soviet Union
USSR Zond-5 5,375 Proton 15 September 1968 Circumlunar Loop
non-human biological payload
Success looped around Moon, returned two tortoises and other live biological specimens and payload safely to Earth despite landing off-target outside the Soviet Union in the Indian Ocean
USSR Zond-6 5,375 Proton 10 November 1968 Circumlunar Loop
non-human biological payload
Partial success looped around Moon, successful reentry, but loss of cabin air pressure caused biological payload death, parachute system malfunction and severe vehicle damage upon landing
USSR Zond-7 5,979 Proton 8 August 1969 Circumlunar Loop
non-human biological payload
Success looped around Moon, returned biological payload safely to Earth and landed on-target inside Soviet Union. Only Zond mission whose reentry G-forces would have been survivable by human crew had they been aboard.
USSR Zond-8 5,375 Proton 20 October 1970 Circumlunar Loop
non-human biological payload
Success looped around Moon, returned biological payload safely to Earth despite landing off-target outside Soviet Union in the Indian Ocean

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