From: Stephen Williamson
Originally Sent: Thursday, November 01, 2012 8:47 AM. Updated since.
Subject: A Brief History with hyperlinks

Hi all

A timeline from the Kingdom of Babylon in 532 BC

Babylon's reign lasted 67 years, mostly through the Crown Prince and King Nebuchadnezzar, his son Evil-Merodach, and his grandson Belshazzar.

532 BC Nineveh, capital of Assyria, falls to Nabopolassar, King of Babylon. Nabopolassar reigned a further eight years before abdicating the throne in favour of his son, Nebuchadnezzar. Nabopolassar died shortly after.

Click here for a reconciliation of the 80 years difference between the fall of Nineveh in 532 BC, which reconciles with scripture, and the year 612 BC that was recorded in Greek history following the writings of a somewhat "mysterious" historian named Herodotus.

Kingdom of Persia in 465 BC

Persia's reign lasted 134 years, mostly through Cyrus, Cambyses (called Artaxerxes in Ezra), Darius, Artaxerxes, and Artaxerxes II (called Ahasuerus in Esther).

Click here for further background to these four Persian kings that followed Cyrus the Great.

465 BC Darius the Mede and Cyrus the Persian took Babylon on the night of Daniel's prophecy.

453 BC After defeating Croesus in Lydia, Cyrus defeated Nabonidus (father of Belshazzar) in open battle. It is called first year of his reign, Darius the Mede has no more mention, and Cyrus commanded the Jews to go free. Rebuild the Lord's house.

430 BC Battle of Marathon holding off the Median Navy under Darius. "Median" is the name used by Thucydides.
Click here for a history of Greece and Sparta at this time.

420 BC According to Thucydides, Battle of Salamis came ten years later and Themistocles, the Greek commander sent Xerxes back to Persia "tail between his legs", according to the Greeks. It was followed by the Second Peloponnesian War (between Athens and Sparta), initially led by Pericles on behalf of Athens.

388 BC (approximately) Following this war with the Spartans came the Battle of Thermopylae, as recorded by Herodotus, where 300 Spartans were able to hold off hordes of invaders financed by Persia. However the armies broke through and took Athens. The King's Peace followed, as set out by Artaxerxes II (husband of Esther) in Susa, placing Sparta in charge of much of Greece.

Kingdom of Greece in 331 BC

Greece's reign and influence lasted 268 years, mostly through the King of the South (Egypt) and the King of the North (Antioch in Syria).

331 BC Alexander the Great (from Macedonia), with his father Philip having unified Greece, now defeated Persia. But he died young, also his children, and his kingdom divided into four. Egypt (Alexandria) in the south then Syria (Antioch) in the north ruled over Jerusalem following the Greek customs.

164 BC Reign of the Jewish priestly Maccabees, starting with the Feast of Hannukah (Dedication of the Temple) in 164 BC, casting off the Syrian Greek yoke circa 140 BC.

Kingdom of Rome in 63 BC

Rome's reign lasted 536 years before it split irrevocably in two.

63 BC At the time of Herod the Great, Rome (under Pompey) defeated and took Jerusalem at a time that civil war was about to break out between two Maccabean brothers/rulers. Click here for a list of Roman emperors that followed shortly after, ruling over Jerusalem, starting with Augustine.

31 AD Jesus was crucified, cut off (69 * 7 years after that command by Cyrus in 453 BC). The destruction of Jerusalem and the temple followed shortly after in 70 AD. Followed by a second war, and a decree banishing all Jews from Jerusalem on pain of death in 135 AD.

312 AD Constantine became Roman Emperor, followed by Christianity becoming the official religion of Rome. But Constantine shifted his capital city to Byzantium and it was renamed Constantinople.

410 AD Rome was sacked over three days by the Visigoths (Western Goths, Germanic tribes) under Alaric.

455 AD Rome was sacked over 14 days by the Vandals (East Germanic tribes) under Genseric.

474 AD Roman Empire splits in two with Julius Nepos, a man appointed to be emperor of the west by the eastern emperor, but rejected and deposed by the Roman Senate in Ravenna. Ravenna is in the north-east of Italy, having a port to the Adriatic Sea. In 476 AD Odoacer (perhaps from one of the east German tribes, the Scirii) became the king of Italy, under a "Germanic Federation" reigning from Ravenna. In 493 he was killed while eating a meal with Theoderic, an Ostrogoth (Eastern Goth) who now took over. Ongoing wars continue. Click here for a list of these Ostrogothic rulers.

546 AD Rome was sacked by Ostrogoths under Totila, and again in 549-550. He planned to rebuild the city, but was slain in Ravenna fighting Justinian in 552, who retook Ravenna and Rome, reigning from Constantinople.

569 AD Lombard King Alboin arrived in Northern Italy. Click here for a full list of their kings that followed. Their territory built progressively in Northern Italy (Lombardy Major) and Southern Italy (Lombardy Minor) leaving just Rome and Ravenna, referred to as Romagna, to be ruled by Constantinople. The Lombard kingdom ended in 774 with their defeat by Charlemagne, King of the Franks. Charlemagne was named Holy Roman Emperor (in the west) by the Pope on Christmas Day at the close of 800 AD.

Over now to the Middle East

620 AD Emperor Heraclius in Constantinople switched the official language of Eastern Roman Empire back to Greek. From about 215 AD, the official language had been Latin, the language of Rome. But this move signalled to the Arab world and others there was a considerable breakdown in communication throughout the west. And Rome were indeed having considerable difficulty obtaining sufficient gold coinage called "solidus" in Latin or "soldo" in later Italian for its military — its "soldiers".

622 AD Mohammed settled his community in Medina in Saudi Arabia (340 kms from Mecca).

632 AD Mohammed passed away. Start of Rashidun Caliphate (1st Caliphate) — Sunni — reigning from Medina.

637 AD Capture of Jerusalem

661 AD Umayyad Caliphate (2nd Caliphate) — Sunni — reigning from Damascus in Syria.

750 AD Abbasid Caliphate (3rd Caliphate) — Sunni — reigning from Baghdad in Babylon (Iraq). Generally on good terms with the West click here for more detail so long as they pay their taxes.
 
Click here for a map of Europe, North Africa, and the Middle East at this time.

969 AD Fatimid Caliphate (4th Caliphate) — Shia Caliphate — rival to Baghdad — reigning from Cairo in Egypt. This dynasty now took Jerusalem.

1055 AD Seljuk Turks — Sunni — moved into Baghdad, spread through the Middle East, following their leader Tughril Beg. The Seljuks were a clan of the Oghuz Turks who had settled in what is today modern Kazakhstan, Uzbekistan and Turkmenistan, click here for a map.

1058 AD A rival mercenary Turk, fighting for the Fatimid dynasty, captured Baghdad briefly. After he was killed the following year, Baghdad recaptured in 1060 by Tughril Beg.

1073 AD Another Turkish commander, Atsiz ibn Uvaq took Jerusalem and Palestine from the Fatimids, then Damascus in 1076. Following a rebellion in Jerusalem in 1077 while he was fighting the Fatimids in Egypt, he recaptured the city, massacring the local population. For this he was executed by the new Seljuk emir of Damascus, Tutush.

1086 AD Artuq was appointed governor of Jerusalem by Tutush. Artuq died in 1091 and in 1098 his sons Sokmen and Ilghazi were expelled from Jerusalem by the Egyptian Fatimid vizier al-Afdal Shahanshah.
Meanwhile word had come to the West that the Turks were forbidding all Christian services, killing Christian pilgrims as they arrived.

1099 AD Holy War (later called the first Crusade) led to the capture of Jerusalem by the West.

1118 AD Knights Templar formed in Jerusalem, a military "Harvey World Travel", with offices throughout Europe for pilgrims and business people everywhere. Grew enormously popular.

1164 AD Nur ad-Din, Turkish governor of Syria, sent a military officer, Shirkuh together with his nephew Saladin both having a Kurdish background, to defeat the weak rulers in Egypt and hold back the Crusaders in Jerusalem. Eventually they did so. After his uncle Shirkuh died in 1169, Saladin was appointed vizier (chief minister of Egypt) by the Fatimid (Shia) caliph, then after the caliph died in 1171, Saladin took full control, switching Egypt's allegiance back to the Baghdad-based Abbasid (Sunni) Caliphate.

1174 AD After Nur ad-Din died, Saladin's army was victorious in taking over Syria. His brother Al-Adil then governed Egypt on his behalf, mobilizing that country's resources in support of his brother's campaigns in Syria and in his war against the Crusaders (1175–1183).

1187 AD Saladin recaptured Jerusalem. Knights Templar shifted their headquarters to Acre (Akko) in northern Israel where they survived, just, another hundred years. But subsequent crusades only had an occasional impact.

1204 AD Venetian mercenaries led by Enrico Dandolo on so-called "Fourth Crusade", sacked Constantinople, capital of the empire in revenge for

  1. the confiscation of their ships and goods that had occurred there following a riot over Genoa concessions in 1171, and
  2. the massacre of Western (Latin) merchants by a Constantinople mob in 1182.

The empire of Constantinople was now divided amongst the Western Latins and never reclaimed its previous glory.

1258 AD Abbasid Caliphate in Baghdad fell to Hulagu Khan (Genghis Khan’s grandson). A surviving member formed a "shadow" Caliphate under the patronage of the Mamluk Turks in Cairo. And Venetian merchants Niccolò and Maffeo Polo, Marco Polo's father and uncle, left Constantinople for China, joining up with an embassy from Hulagu Khan to his brother, Kublai Khan.

Note, Christian missionaries are recorded as visiting the East from earliest times, practising what became known as Syriac Christianity, its language the basis for Genghis Khan's Mongolian script. Hulagu Khan's wife and Kublai Khan's mother are both recorded as being Christians. Through the Polos, Kublai Khan sent a request to the Pope for 100 Christian teachers to come to China and, although the Pope was unable to fulfill that request, Niccolò does return with his son Marco.

1261 AD With the aid of Genoa, the Greek emperor Michael VIII retook Constantinople, but was now fairly isolated as the Ottoman Turks based in Sogut steadily expanded their power, taking Bursa in 1324, crossed into Europe in 1354, took Thessaloniki in northern Greece in 1387, and Kosovo, political and spiritual centre of the Serbian Empire, in 1389.

1368 AD Meanwhile, the first year of the Ming Dynasty in China saw the expulsion of all church missions, as well as opposition to Islam. In Persia, Mongol warriors led by Timur (Tamburlaine the Great), calling himself the "Sword of Islam", demolished the Church of the East. As his empire expanded, he captured the Ottoman Sultan who died in captivity in 1403. But Timur himself died two years later.

1453 AD Constantinople now fell to the Ottoman Turks, followed by Athens in 1458. Greeks engaged in guerilla warfare from the mountains of Greece on and off during the following 370 years.

1517 AD In January, Cairo fell to the Ottoman Turks. They now reigned for 400 years from Constantinople. And in the north, there came Ivan the Terrible, first tsar (caesar) of Russia. Many there saw themselves as taking on the mantle of the "Third Rome" (after Constantinople) — a new Holy Roman Empire.

Back to the West

1317 AD (flashback) Meanwhile, while the Knights Templar had been disbanded in 1307, their leaders killed and their assets in England and France seized by the governments, they resurfaced in Portugal in 1317 as the Order of Christ. And next we see Portugal, establishing trading posts right around Africa (1415-1500) including the Cape of Good Hope in 1488, sailing west to Brazil in 1500 and then Newfoundland in 1501, visited Ceylon (Sri Lanka) in the east in 1505, settled in Goa in India in 1510, the Spice Islands in Indonesia in 1512 and Timor in 1520, Canton (Guangzhou) in China in 1517 and reached Japan in 1542.

Spain, following Christopher Columbus's discovery of the Caribbean Islands in 1492 — specifically The Bahamas islands, Cuba, and Hispaniola (modern day Haiti and Dominican Republic) — plus the discovery of gold on that last island, they now settled them, exploring north into Mexico and south into Peru while leaving Brazil on South America's east coast to be settled by the Portuguese. Sailing from Mexico in 1545 they reached New Guinea, in 1565 the Philippines.

The Spanish and Portuguese trade route now went over the Atlantic Ocean, via Havana Cuba, to the port of Vera Cruz in Mexico. A 700km overland journey via Mexico City took them to the port of Acapulco in the west, from whence they sailed to Manila, capital of the Philippines, to conduct significant trade with China.

The Dutch, with their own military, travelled via the Indian Ocean in opposition to Portugal and Spain, set up trade agreements with Japan, colonised the Cape of Good Hope in South Africa, moved into Ceylon (Sri Lanka), parts of the United States and the Caribbean, and set up trade routes into Java and West Timor during the 1600s and 1700s. In Amsterdam its national symbol, the Tulip, became world famous for its market bubble and crash (1634-1637).

France settled in Africa, Canada and North America, also sending missionaries (and traders) into parts of India and south-east Asia and the Pacific islands during these years, the 1600s and 1700s.

At the same time, their chief rival England also settled in North America and India. Following international wars with France (particularly 1754-1763), the British in 1788 set up a convict colony inside what became known as Australia. In 1795, with the rise of Napoleon and his annexing of the Dutch Empire, the British took over the Cape of Good Hope in South Africa, the island of Ceylon (Sri Lanka), and Singapore as a gateway to the East.

In 1803, Napoleon sold Louisiana click here for a map — an area west of the Mississippi River that extended from the Gulf of Mexico in the south to the Canadian border in the north — to the USA. In 1807, Napoleon invaded Portugal, and Portugal's prince regent set up an alternative government in Brazil. In 1808, Napoleon's brother Joseph Bonaparte took over Spain. As a result, independence movements, wars, a breaking away from the Spanish and Portuguese empires occurred throughout North and South America soon after.

After peace came (after a fashion) to Europe during the 19th century, the British continued to send English traders, missionaries and anti-slavery governors into parts of Africa, much of India, all of Australia, New Zealand and Papua-New Guinea, along with ongoing influence into Malaysia Thailand and Burma. The French sent Catholic missionaries, and traders into some parts of Africa, a small part of India, and a large part of Vietnam and Cambodia. The Dutch extended their trading influence inside Indonesia, which included a printing press for the Indonesian language. Portugal retained Goa (in India), and East Timor (in Indonesia).

Discovery of gold and diamonds and other precious stones in Africa during the 19th (and 20th) centuries became a source of war between these empires and the locals.

1917 AD Beersheba fell to the Aussies (in the British Army) on 31st October. Jerusalem fell two months later.

The United States then came to the aid of Europe (and the rest of the world) during the next 90 years.

Blessings all Steve

Stephen Williamson Computing Services Pty Ltd
www.swcs.com.au/aboutus.asp