History of Greece from Solon's Democracy to Alexander the Great

About 80 years, or in the case of the Battle of Marathon 60 years needs to be subtracted from each Greek year in order to reconcile with the Bible Timeline and Jewish history. In Athens, this affects the dates of Solon, and the "tyrants" Peisistratos, Hipparchus and Hippias. In Sparta, where about 100 years needs to be subtracted for the Battle of Thermopylae, it affects the two kings Cleomenes and his half-brother Leonidas.

It is due to a somewhat "mysterious" historian named Herodotus. His account singularly failed to align with the account in scripture, as well as the five Persian kings recorded by Josephus in Jewish history:- 1. Cyrus, 2. Cambyses, 3. Darius, 4. Xerxes — Artaxerxes in Nehemiah, 5. Artaxerxes II — the king in the book of Esther. It appears Herodotus lived about 90 - 100 years later than the period (484 BC - 425 BC) normally allotted to him, and thus when Alexander's teacher Aristotle (384 BC - 322 BC) referred to Herodotus as a historian — and there appear no personal references to Herodotus's name prior to this — Aristotle was speaking of him as a contemporary.

A reason for the discrepancy may well have been an early Greek play called "The Persians", written by Aeschylus apparently in 472BC about the time of Daniel's prophecy Daniel 8:21, exalting Greece as a coming world empire. In Daniel 7, Persia was portrayed as a bear eating three ribs, who would defeat three kingdoms — Babylon Lydia and Egypt — but no more. Adjustments to the play's script inevitably occurred after 380BC and the Persian king's return to Persia after his attack on Greece, with Herodotus subsequently made a contemporary of Aeschylus.

Click here for further details.

Solon: (c.558-478BC) laid the foundations for Athenian democracy. At the end of his life, visited Croesus in Lydia and Ahmose II in Egypt, prior to their defeats by Cyrus. See more details about those two men at the bottom of the page.

Peisistratos: Tyrant in Athens after Solon c.481-447BC. Followed by his son.

Hipparchus: Tyrant in Athens c.447-434BC, jointly with his brother.

Hippias: Tyrant in Athens, jointly with his brother most of the time c.447-430BC. Forced out by Cleomenes I of Sparta and fled to Darius I in Persia who then threatened to attack Athens if they did not accept Hippias back. Their refusal resulted in the Battle of Marathon, won by Athens about 430 BC.

Pericles: Pericles was a prominent and influential Greek statesman, orator and general in Athens in its Golden Age that commenced with the "Delian League" formed after Solon after 478 BC, as mostly recorded by Thucydides.

Socrates: (470-399BC) was born at this time, followed by Plato: (427-348BC), then Aristotle: (384-322BC).

Now the Kings of Sparta, and the Peloponnesian War, followed by a major Persian invasion.

Cleomenes I: King of Sparta c.439-390BC.

Pleistoanax: Reigned in Sparta during that Peloponnesian war with Athens, possibly jointly with Cleomenes I.

Pausanias: Son of Pleistoanax. Reigned 408 BC to 395 BC.

Agesipolis: Son of Pausanias. Reigned 394380 BC.

Leonidas I: (c.440-380BC) as the half-brother of Cleomenes I above. Became King of Sparta c.389-380BC, probably jointly with Agesipolis above. Famous for being the King of Sparta who perished at the Battle of Thermopylae (near modern day Lamia in central Greece) in the invasion by the Persians and their allies. Leonidas had a son, Pleistarchus: but this man shows virtually no history and no recorded children. Far more is known of Agesilaus II just below.

Incidentally this great Persian war followed a sortie by the Greek mercenary/historian Xenophon on Persian soil against Artaxerxes II (click here to read Xenophon's account). In response the Persian king with his allies, an army and navy numbering perhaps two million soldiers and sailors, invaded Greece (from the north) and sacked Athens, whose citizens had fled. Click here for an account by Herodotus. But after the Persian ships were defeated at the Battle of Salamis circa 380BC, the Persian king returned to his own country, still leaving part of that massive army to ravage the land under Mardonius. However Mardonius died in a battle the following year.

Agesilaus II: (c.444-360BC) Became King of Sparta and reigned until 360BC, during most of which time he was, in Plutarch's words, "as good as though commander and king of all Greece," and was for the whole of it greatly identified with his country's deeds and fortunes.

Philip of Macedon: (382-336BC) Reigned over the kingdom of Macedon from 359 BC, conquering Athens and Sparta until his assassination in 336 BC. Followed by his son, Alexander the Great: (356-323BC) Conquered the Persian empire after the death of his father.



Croesus: Reigned in Lydia c.505-456BC till defeated by Cyrus. Note there is a 90 year discrepancy between Wikipedia and an estimate of these years.

Amasis II: a major Egyptian officer, who declared himself Pharaoh in 490BC following a civil war in Egypt after predecessor Pharaoh Apries had been defeated in 508BC by Nebuchadnezzar when helping Jerusalem. So, in Egypt, civil war, war with Babylon, Greeks also making financial inroads. No peace for the Jews who had gone to live there, as prophesied in Jeremiah. Amasis died in 446BC. Cambyses, son of Cyrus, then took control.

** End of Report