Click here re Time & Relativity adapted from an email sent to a number of friends in June 2007.
Most of the chemical makeup of the universe (stars / suns, etc) is hydrogen (75%), a very combustible element, and at a lower level, helium (23%) with the fusion of hydrogen into helium producing both light and heat. These two elements, incidentally, have been located in our moon's very thin atmosphere. The next five most common elements are estimated as being: Oxygen (1%), Carbon (½%), then Neon, Iron and Nitrogen (at about 0.1% each).
Click here for a query in www.quora.com on the Makeup of the Sun, and its relationship to Fire.
Click here for some notes on the Makeup of the Moon plus estimates for the other 8 planets in our Solar System.
Finally, click here for the 12 constellations of stars (from NASA's perspective) using names formalized in Greek by Egyptian astronomer Claudius Ptolemy circa 150AD. The first constellation (or house) in Babylonian tradition is the star configuration in the east at the moment of sunrise on the spring equinox in the northern hemisphere, i.e. about March 21st, following which the days are longer than nights. Aries, the ram, originally thousands of years ago, has become Pisces, the fish, since about the time of Christ, with Aquarius, the water carrier, due to replace it.
The air in our atmosphere in contrast — all 5140 trillion tonnes of it — is very rich with nitrogen 78% and oxygen 21%, followed by argon 0.9% and carbon dioxide 0.03%, then very small percentages of other elements that include water vapor, dust particles, pollen, plant grains and other solid particles.
Contrasted with 1½ million trillion tonnes of water (click here for its placement) and 6 billion trillion tonnes of earth.
In the example below, the water content is 62% of volume, 60% of mass. Water H2O is
|Hydrogen||62%||10%||with about 41⅓% as being a part of the water volume|
|and about 6⅔% as being a part of the water mass|
|Oxygen||24%||65%||with about 20⅔% as being a part of the water volume|
|and about 53⅓% as being a part of the water mass|
|Carbon||12%||18½%||This figure remains fairly stable in adults|
|Remaining 1% of volume, 3½% mass consists of (1) Calcium in teeth and bones about 1½%, (2) Phosphorus about 1%, and (3) about 15 trace elements: **Sulphur, Potassium and Sodium Chloride about 0.3% each, Magnesium about 0.1% then Iron, Iodine, Fluoride, Copper, Zinc, Chromium, Selenium, Manganese, Molybdenum, Vanadium and Cobalt.|
**Sulphur compounds produced by certain bacteria in the gut make up the source of the odour associated most with waste and decay.
Individual Elements of the Human Body
Plant Life: In fruits and vegetables, the water percentage varies from, say, 74% in bananas to 96% in lettuces and cucumbers. Most vegetables have a water content above 90%.
Average oxygen percentage via water and carbohydrates is thus much higher at about 77%, hydrogen percentage remains steady at about 10%, while carbon percentage is accordingly lower, an average of 12%. Nitrogen percentage is about 1%, with various trace elements following.
With living trees, the wood content causes the carbon percentage to be higher, around
Earth Crust: Oxygen 46% Silicon 27% Aluminium 8% Iron 6% Calcium 5% with last 8% of the crust made up of many dozens of elements.
The solid inner core is almost entirely made of iron.
** End of page