Opening F-111 dump and burn at Riverfire 2006, an annual fireworks/RAAF spectacular at South Bank in Brisbane, Saturday September 2nd 2006
The most vulnerable countries in 2010 are shown in PIMCO’s chart “The Ring of Fire.” These red zone countries are ones with the potential for public debt to exceed 90% of GDP within a few years’ time. The yellow and green areas are considered to be the most conservative and potentially most solvent, with the potential for higher growth.
On February 11, 2010 12:14 PM, "Stephen Williamson" wrote:
Really interesting graph in today's Australian, comparing numerous advanced economies in the western world, in terms of their public debt and budget deficit (as a percentage of GDP).
So, going left to right, it shows Gross Government Debt as a percentage of Gross Domestic Production (for the year). We've jumped from 10% of GDP in 2007 to about 17% (or more) now, and though it's still going up, it's still the lowest of all the countries on that list. That, doubtless, is with major thanks to Costello and Howard.
Going top to bottom, it shows current government surplus / deficit for the year, once again as a percentage of Gross Domestic Product. And, once again, Australia's 4% deficit, though it's in deficit, still looks fairly healthy, compared to, say, poor old Greece .
In fact, we look like we're in a better state than just about any other country on the list.
Click here to read the full article.
Click here for an updated "Sweeping Plains" article by KPMG partner, Bernard Salt in "The Australian" on Australia Day 2017.
As a friend replied: Great graph. We are a blessed nation.
Click Here for "The Great Southland" by Geoff Bullock © 1991 Word Music Recorded at paulsplace
Govt figures for 2009-2010 showed total tax revenue of $290 billion, and total govt expenses of $338 billion, leaving an operating deficit of $48 billion. Our GDP that year was about a cool $1 trillion.
Govt Salaries 2009-2010 PM: $340,704 Deputy PM: $268,632 Treasurer: $245,700 Opposition Leader: $242,424
Below is a quick definition of GDP Gross Domestic Product. All three approaches are designed to bring a roughly equivalent total.
Note too, the following figures are specifically excluded from GDP:
** With regard to gifts to churches and non-profit aid organizations, click here for the "mutuality" principle that is applied.
Click here to read Wikipedia's article on each country's GDP.
Click here for a Euro journal tracking the IMF's bailout of Greece on May 4th 2010.
Brief Quote "The Greek bailout means Euro-area nations are indeed their brothers' keepers, which in practice means every country's debt is on every other country's balance sheet."
Click here for the Australian Govt's Reserve Bank Balance Sheet, comparing 2017 with 2018.
Click here for UTS financial lecture notes on how the Reserve Bank actually operates as a clearing house for all Australian banks every day.
From https://s3-ap-southeast-2.amazonaws.com /nexusnotes-media/wp-content/uploads/edd/2016/07/16031534 /Pages-from-The-Financial-System-Notes.pdf
Click here for the timeline of our "Big Four" Australian banks. Includes a link to the latest APRA report showing current assets and liabilities of all Australian banks.
Click here for a report 2004 - 2018 of Australian Govt Gross Debt.
Click here for a graph 2006 - 2018 of Australian Govt Budget Surplus/Deficit.
Click here for a 45 year graph estimates 1971 - 2016 of Australian Govt Net Debt (Gross Debt less Financial Assets in Currency, Stocks and Bonds) as published by FlagPost - Australia's Commonwealth Parliamentary Library - in 2012.
Click here for a 58 year Aussie Home Interest Rates Timeline 2017 back to 1959.
From: Stephen Williamson
Sent: Wednesday, December 18, 2013 4:22 PM
Subject: How did everyone in Australia really survive before banks?
And secondly since 1788, virtually no depositor into a savings bank in Australia who then stayed in Australia has ever lost his or her money. How come?
Because banks do not "create" wealth, they can only facilitate it, remove it, or become insolvent, click here for more on how banks become insolvent. In Australia, the Federal Government currently insures and thus guarantees personal deposits, up to $AU 250,000 per customer per institution.
Looking at the first question, first it was the grand old days of "promissory" / "small change" exchange notes used for bartering — all having a "face" value and a "buying" value. 100 businesses apparently got started up this way in Sydney and Hobart. Yes, the imagination boggles at what they promised soldiers, administrators and free settlers, both legally and illegally. And with a major shortage of silver coins, rum became the colony's "money", more by necessity than choice.
A brief background: With the departure of Captain Phillip at the end of his tenure as governor in 1792, the infant colony was briefly left in the care of lieutenant-governors who governed on behalf of the New South Wales Army Corps. Importantly, members of this military force had the ability to raise capital — labour and materials — by borrowing against their regimental pay, which was accumulating back home in England.
At the time, John Palmer was the official commissary in Sydney, empowered to draw bills of exchange on the British Treasury countersigned by the governor. He kept the public accounts and funds of the colony and was at once official supplier, contractor and banker to the settlement.
In 1793 the American trading ship, the 'Hope', arrived with 7,500 gallons of rum in her cargo. The other goods she carried were desperately needed but the Hope's captain insisted that he would sell nothing to the colonists unless they also bought all of his rum. The New South Wales Corps officers accordingly formed a syndicate with regimental paymaster John MacArthur fixing the necessary IOUs against the regiment's funds in England, bought this cargo, then distributed it at a sizeable profit. The vast pool of rum flooded into the market place at grossly inflated prices and at once became a means of exchange. For their efforts, the New South Wales Corps were immediately dubbed the 'Rum Corps', a name which stuck until their recall to England in 1810. The rich pickings they made from that first deal gave them the power to monopolise almost all trade, particularly that in rum (the name given to all spirits), for those 17 years.
In 1805 MacArthur, having resigned his commission, was appointed 5,000 acres at Camden Park by the Privy Council in London for his growing herds of Merino sheep, and run from Elizabeth Farm near Parramatta, his original acreage that he had named after his wife.
Click here for further background to John MacArthur, his trips to England, and an account of the coup against Governor Bligh in 1808 which led to MacArthur's son going to London accompanied by the first bale of exported wool.
Click here for a history of Australia Post, with Isaac Nichols appointed the first postmaster in 1809. Having one man in charge alleviated the mayhem that at times occurred when supply ships arrived, which was said to include unscrupulous people taking other people's mail and selling it back to them. Nichols worked from his house, also substantial buildings he had built in lower George St then known as High Street from where he had also established a shipyard. The cost to a recipient for the service he provided was one shilling i.e. about $65 today.
Incidentally, this principle of "having the recipient pay" is still practised by Australia Post with letters or parcels where there is no (or under) paid postage. If there is no return address listed on the back, their "stated" policy is to leave a card for the addressee advising of a postal article awaiting with more to pay on it. Then, if still unclaimed and if there is no return address inside, after a length of time — between three and 12 months depending on the value of any goods inside — any goods are auctioned off for charity.
In 1810 Governor Macquarie arrived with a new army regiment, followed, in November 1812, by a shipment of £10,000 value in Spanish dollars (i.e. $40,000 in Spanish coins) for the colony's use. Now, starting in 1817, came the first banks, working initially with these Spanish dollars. MacArthur returned that same year, with his exported wool soon making him the "richest man" in NSW. In January 1826 English currency became Australia's official currency, using silver and copper coins issued to the colony from the London mint. Within 10 years all other coins disappeared from circulation.
Note, after Federation in 1901, these British coins continued in Australia, being minted in London. In 1910 came the first Australian silver coins (threepences, sixpences, shillings and florins), then in 1911 Australian copper pennies which were also minted overseas.
Not until after WW1 started did Australia's first silver coin minting begin, at the Melbourne mint, in 1916. The Canberra Mint was opened in 1965, in preparation for Australia's decimal coinage.
Back to 1817. Australian banks were now divided into two distinct categories — savings banks and trading banks. Savings banks paid virtually no interest to their depositors, their lending activities were restricted to providing mortgages, and ended up guaranteed or owned by the colonial governments, using post offices as front counter agencies. Safer for borrowers and depositors. Trading banks on the other hand were private banks, essentially merchant banks, which provided no services to the general public, but were underwriters for farmers, miners, builders, etc. They printed private banknotes / future-dated promissory notes, based on their paid-up capital — starting with that Bank of NSW in 1817. But most of these trading institutions closed their doors — specifically through depressions in the 1840s and in the 1890s — as businesses that partnered with them failed, with inadequate insurance. And then there were the standover merchants, not to mention bushrangers. It was a tough land. Ouch.
But with savings banks, even when fraud occurred, losses were borne via colonial government regulation only by shareholders & overseas depositors / banknote holders. Rarely, if ever, by Australian depositors / banknote holders. While runs on savings banks certainly occurred, it meant a corresponding "domino" effect was short-lived. For example, in one of the first runs in 1843 on the Savings Bank of NSW (no relation to the Bank of NSW), the colonial government undertook to guarantee trustees' borrowings, if taken out to meet the bank's repayments, of up to £50 000. This action followed the crash, and loss to many wealthy ones, of an early merchant bank known as the
Click here for further background.
Of course, the gold rush in 1851 helped — some people . A Sydney mint opened in 1855, issuing gold coins, followed by the Melbourne mint in 1872, then Perth in 1899.
In 1893, the year of the great Brisbane flood and with many banks failing, the Queensland Treasury issued their own legal tender banknotes, via Queensland Government bonds, and prohibited private banks in the colony from issuing their own notes. These, instead, replaced the private banknotes of the eight trading banks whose doors had not closed.
Click here to read about the political situation, with missionaries from London requesting Queensland's protection to New Guinea in the immediate north.
But, back to banking, they were the first colonial government to do that on a major scale since, perhaps, the days of that regimental paymaster John MacArthur in 1793 with those IOUs. And, as intended, it helped restore confidence and brought people and investment — to Brisbane (and Queensland).
Queensland had another "first" 84 years later when it
But to double its income from sales taxes (it was still very young), the Qld government now introduced a wide-ranging Income Tax Act in 1902, click here for more details. To summarize, the levy was 10 shillings per annum on every adult male over the age of 21 earning less then £100, £1 per annum if earning between £100 and £150, then 5% on "produce of property" income and 2½% on "personal exertion" income for income over £150. Note, adult females weren't taxed unless their income exceeded £150. Click here for income taxing in the other states. For further background on Australia's tax history, click here.
Following Federation, in 1910 came the overprinting of the words "Australian Note" on private banknotes, printed by the Commonwealth Treasury. They purchased all the remaining private banknote paper, once again, provided that their doors were still open. It said it would give the same guarantee, Australia-wide, and told the Queensland Treasury to stoppit .
In December 1911 the Commonwealth Bank, fully owned by the Federal Government, opened for general business.
In 1913, the Australian Treasury began printing brand new banknotes in Melbourne, using the note printing company
In 1915, in the midst of World War 1, Australia followed the United Kingdom in prohibiting all gold exports except with the Treasurer's consent. This restriction was only temporarily removed in 1925.
In 1920 the Commonwealth Bank became Australia's Central Bank, and took over responsibility for note printing from the Commonwealth Treasury. It became a Clearing House between the Big Four Banks (1. Bank of NSW (today Westpac), 2. National Bank, 3. ANZ and 4. Itself) and when required a Lender of Last Resort.
In 1929, the Commonwealth Bank Act provided for the requisitioning of all Australian gold in return for Australian notes. Formal action was never taken under this legislation, but it marked the beginning of the end of the holding of gold by banks and the public in Australia. The Bank did make gold available to meet domestic industrial demand, but exports were strictly controlled.
In June 1932, the Commonwealth Bank Act was amended to allow part of the note reserve to be held in UK pounds sterling, with £G10 million of gold shipped overseas from the gold reserve of the Australian Notes Fund.
The outbreak of World War II again called for special Commonwealth gold controls. In 1939 regulations under the Defence Act provided for the acquisition by the Commonwealth Bank of newly won and other gold. After the war these controls were continued in the Banking Act, until they were lifted in 1976.
In 1960, the Reserve Bank of Australia became Australia's Central Bank in the place of the Commonwealth Bank, with each member bank holding Exchange Settlement Accounts. Smaller banks and building societies and credit unions though still had no direct access and could only provide customers with agency cheques via an arrangement with a major bank.
In 1983, the Australian government "floated" the Australian dollar, meaning that it no longer fixes its value by reference to the English pound, the US dollar or any other foreign currency. In 1985 there was massive deregulation. That year sixteen foreign banks gained access to the system, followed by many more. In early 1997, the Reserve Bank increased its holding of overseas currencies, selling 167 tonnes of gold and exchanging it for $US, and later on € euro, and others.
It has enabled it to intervene, e.g. during the global financial crisis, to restore market liquidity and limit excessive price volatility.
The last bank failure in which Australian depositors lost money (and then only a minimal amount) was that of a trading bank, the Primary Producers Bank of Australia, back in 1931. Since then until today, banks have wound up but, banking sector problems have been resolved, without losses to depositors. As mentioned earlier, the Federal Government currently insures and thus guarantees deposits (up to $250,000) per customer, per institution, click here.
Yes, we are such a young country, hard to understand other countries' situations, and so hard for other countries to understand us. And isn't it amazing at how the Lord has undertaken, so often, during those past 224 years.
Click here for further background of how deposit slips and promissory notes evolved into privately backed banknotes and government backed "legal tender" banknotes, and how the bill of exchange turned into a modern cheque.
Click here for some photos of Australia's early pre-decimal banknotes and coins.
Click here for further information on inter-bank payments at the
Click here for further background to the minting of Australian coins from the English Royal Mint.
Click here for the Australian Payments Network, responsible for the BSB system used when making direct debits and credits between Australian bank accounts. These transactions are cleared daily. Also responsible for cheque clearance, which by 2017 had dropped to one-fifth of the volume of cheques issued in 2007. In 2017, around 4 cheques were written per person in Australia, down from 20 cheques per person 10 years earlier. A significant share of cheque use is related to commercial payments, and financial institution ('bank') cheques for certain transactions such as property settlements.
Click here re EFTPOS in Australia, launched by Woolworths, Coles and major banks in 1988 for same day clearance. It employed Mastercard's Maestro debit card service that required not only that the magnetic stripe was able to be read with every transaction, but also that cleared funds were available and could be affirmed by each cardholder's issuing bank, helping shoppers stay in control of their budgeting.
Click here for Paypal, an EFTPOS member but based in the US. It was created by Peter Thiel and other investors in 1998, and was owned by eBay 2002 - 2014.
Click here for BPAY for other Australian merchants, a wholly owned subsidiary of Cardlink Services Limited. It is owned equally by the four major Australian banks i.e. Australia and New Zealand Banking Group, Commonwealth Bank, National Australia Bank and Westpac. Launched in 1997, it is of course totally separate to EFTPOS and BSB.
Click here for an easy-to-follow image of the numerous steps involved in the processing of electronic card transactions. Click here for the difference between the "card issuer" bank and the "acquirer" bank (merchant bank).
Click here for Visa and Mastercard's background. Click here for the Bank Identification Numbers issued to them and other credit cards worldwide. Click here for Visa's US-based Card Acceptance Guidelines for Merchants. It shows the steps Visa follows, in validating a transaction worldwide.
Below are two lists based on the IMF List 2014 - 2019 of debtor and creditor nations by Net international investment position
What it does is take the net position: Total external assets (owned in other countries) of every individual, company, and government institution, then subtracts the total external liabilities.
1. The 24 creditor nations listed in US$ are
Totalling $ trillion
2. The 30 debtor nations listed in US$ are
Totalling $ trillion
Note, the above figure includes $664 billion nett owed by the Eurozone (in Euros) to outside countries.
Note too, the discrepancy of $2.2 trillion between dollars owed (mostly by the US) to creditor nations, and dollars invested by those nations, can be (at least partially) accounted for by the different year numbers involved. Secrets.
Regarding Australia's debtor nation status in third position, ever since we were first settled we've relied on other countries to invest in us, to help us get going. And our public service has always been somewhat top heavy.
See the chart below for how much we are individually and corporately in debt to "managed funds" (in Australia as well as overseas).
And at the end of the day, as the scripture says, each one of us has to bear his own load, whether as individuals, company directors or politicians. Ahh the Lord knows.
** End of article