The Bible Timeline

The earth was one (i.e. no islands) at the time of Babel circa 2250BC. The images above assume a static continental drift (2½ centimetres per year, 7 centimetres for Australia) of over 100 million years.


Click here for Jesus's timeline 2BC - 31AD

The visual layout - from God's foundation of the human aion(s) - the cosmos which he "so loved"

i.e. the creating of Adam, having an internal spirit for God-hosting "services", via a visible command-line "shell" or "arrangement" (cosmos) and "age" (aion) — our world (this army of humanity) click for further scripture references.

Recording 2008 years of the Father, 2008 years of the Son, 2008 years of the Holy Spirit, starting at the start of 4018 BC.

Regarding Noah (born in 2962 BC) it says of his sons Shem, Ham and Japheth in Genesis 9:19 "These three were the sons of Noah, and from these the whole earth was populated".
Click here regarding an Identical Ancestors Point that he (and his wife) may have been born just 5000 years ago. Correct.

Note 1. Click here for reconciliation of differences with Hebrew calendar that commences 3760 BC. Their word for "years"- "shanah" meaning cycles or "anniversaries" of Adam, aligns at the end of Year 1 with Rosh Hashanah (Sep/Oct) — in 4018 BC.
To summarize, there are three shortages totalling 258 years:- 60 years in the life of Terah before the birth of Abraham, 94 enslaved years at the time of the Judges, and 104 years between the deaths (the "cutting off") of Bar Kokhba (the later false messiah) and Jesus (the earlier true messiah) as prophesied in Daniel.

Note 2. Click here for a reconciliation with James Ussher's chronology that commences 4004 BC.
To summarize, there was one excess of 80 years of Greek history which added extra years to the length of the Persian empire click here, and there was one shortage of 94 enslaved years at the time of the Judges, as seen in Paul's words in the book of Acts. Click here for that last one.

Note 3. Click here for a full list of the discrepancies in Genesis 5 in the Greek Septuagint click here. A translation sponsored by the Pharaoh in Egypt about 250BC, it dated Adam to nearly 5500BC by inserting an extra 100 years (or so) before many patriarchs. Ouch. It added 586 extra years between Adam and Noah, then 880 years between Shem and Abraham in Genesis 11. It aligned with Egyptian historian Manetho's account of early dynasties and first pyramids built in 3000BC as incorrectly following the Tower of Babel, not before.
But due to its use by the early church, the Eastern Orthodox Church continues to prefer the Septuagint as the basis for the Old Testament.

Note 4. Click here for a contemporary Assyrian timeline put together by the Assyrian Church of the East, starting with Sargon I (Nimrod) in 2254 BC following the flood.

A man's heart plans his walk, but the Lord fixes his step. Proverbs 16:9

Recorded History: People's Heart Choices / Plans combined with God's Eternal Foreknowledge / Hidden Design. Man, made in God's image, is certainly no robot. In your patience, you purchase your souls - Luke 21:19.
And God enforces limitations (many times hidden and without immediate explanation) for the good of his kingdom when it comes to the outworking of these choices.

Psalm 115:16 "the heavens, the heaven of heavens (including the universe's 93 billion light years or whatever) belong to Jehovah (the Lord), but the Earth has he given to the children of Adam".

Click here for a picture of that mysterious time prior to the bronze age, those six days prior to the first Adam, a period when God planned the plants and vegetables before they were in the field, before there was an "Adam" able to serve or till the "ground" (in Hebrew "adamah", a feminine word), before there had even been "rainfall", but instead "a mist went up from the earth and watered the whole face of the ground" Gen 2:6.

Click here re semen and sperm, atoms and molecules, the "building blocks" of life.

Click the following to view the Mayo Clinic's stages of foetal development through trimester 1   2   3 and MedlinePlus's Changes in the NewBorn in the wonder of each new baby.

In Genesis 2:20 we are told our first ancestor, this living breathing creature (or soul), was able to speak out consistent, individual names / titles over every living breathing creature. That included himself, whom he referred to as "man" (in Hebrew "iysh") having name-calling "dominance" with his "XY" chromosome pair after a "woman" (in Hebrew "ishshah") having an "XX" chromosome pair was cloned by God. In traditional, ancient teaching this "woman" was homemaker, managing the family firm, i.e. the farm, the start of God's kingdom. The "man" was income-generator and protector, warding off enemies, and welcoming friends, and friendly strangers.

The placement of Adam was into a garden towards the east of Eden. It was watered throughout, with the flow forming four heads outside the garden. According to the scriptures (and Josephus), in Moses's day the first head was called the Pison, the Indus/Ganges River that flowed east around Havilah (India), the second the Gihon, the Nile that flowed west around Cush modern day Sudan. The third head the Hiddekel, the Tigris flowing north-east of Assyria, and the last one the Euphrates flowing north-west.

Adam, in early Jewish teaching, also had the capacity for symbols that enabled him to write down and to read back these newly formed names and numbers. As far as records went, click here to see the earliest found samples of this cuneiform (kyoo-nee-aform) writing in the Middle East, back in 3400 BC.

4018 BC
2008 years
Eden. First year of Adam — First man. Father of all families. Able to name the animals. Lives 930 years. Sadly, heeds Eve in her deception, gaining knowledge of both good (the "ideal") and also evil (its "pain and stress").

With Adam's accompanying confusion (hiding) and fear, he and Eve are placed out the "Front Door" i.e. eastwards, with an angel guarding the garden entrance and a "flaming sword" preventing access to the tree of life. The soil outside is infertile, requiring sweat and toil, "cursed" on his account, with ongoing sorrow and death.

After Cain and Abel are born, and Abel is killed by Cain's envy, Adam has another son named Seth. According to Jewish tradition, it is Seth who writes down the account of his parents' life. Then in Gen 5:1-32, Adam's descendants are now listed. Click here for more detail.

 Seth 3888 — Enos 3783 — Cainan 3693 — Mahalaleel 3623 — Jared 3558
 Enoch 3396 — Methuselah who lives 969 years 3331 — Lamech 3144
2962 BCNoah born. Lives for 950 years. But mankind's wicked choices sadden God. In 2482 gives 120 year warning. Genesis 6:3
2462 BCJapheth 2462, Ham 2461, Shem 2460 — Noah's 3 sons born. Shem lives 600 years. Rest of mankind is now ruined from part angel, part human, giants Gen 6:4 & Gen 6:12.
See angels / sons of God reference in Job 1:6 with physical ability shown in Acts 12:7. Possibly the outward forms of these sons of "Elohim" refer to neanderthals / homo sapiens, the human-like creatures which archaeology shows existing prior to Adam (who was formed from "Jehovah Elohim"). All of them are about to be destroyed.

Historically, records in Egypt reveal it was a time when "god-like" rulers had huge pyramids and temples built to their memory e.g. the Temple of Giza and the Sphinx, a period we now refer to as the "3rd, 4th and 5th" dynasties in the "Old Kingdom" of Egypt. And in the scriptures it says the earth was filled with violence.

2362 BCThe Ark is finished, then the Flood in October-November 2362 BC, Noah's 600th year, then Rest. All other mankind and animal life (including "neanderthals") are destroyed except for the 8 people and those animals, all as separate species — of "clean" seven pairs, of "unclean" one pair i.e. male and female — that were kept alive (perhaps in cages) on the ark. See Gen 7:6.

After the ark settled on the mountain, Noah built an altar and offered a sacrifice of joy, of every "clean" animal and bird, foreshadowing Christ. And in response to the "soothing, sweet aroma", God's famous declaration in Gen 8:22: "while the days of earth remain, sowing and reaping, chilliness and heat, summer (high, dry times of harvesting) and winter (low, wet times of disgrace & dishonour), day and night (light and dark), they shall not stop (take a break)".

Circa 2250 BCIn Genesis 9 we read of Noah in a brief, self-dishonouring moment, then of his son Ham proclaiming it to his brothers, then about bondservants (and later, handmaids), people who are bound in service (by circumstances) for their basic protection, food and shelter.

Noah works on a vineyard. Ham sees his father drunk and exposed in his tent — but instead of protecting him he announces the fact to his 2 brothers. Honorably they cover their Dad without looking at him. Noah now blesses the God of Shem, says Japheth would be enlarged — living in the tents — covering of Shem. Sadly, Noah curses Canaan (Ham's youngest son) to a life of work without honour — serving his brothers. Gen 9:25-27 but note also Mat 15:22-28 and 1 Cor 7:21-22

Early Movements after the Flood
Strabo's World Map (circa 1 AD Time of Christ) reconstructed circa 1706
Map of Asia, Europe and Africa according to_Strabo - Geographicus downloaded from Wikipedia commons
Traditionally in Noah's prophecy, we see
  1. Canaan, founder of ancient Palestine, and numerous tribes who scattered worldwide.
    One major branch is associated with the Sinites & Sinim — Sinology, the peoples of China who settled Vietnam in the south, Korea in the north, and in Japan.
  2. Shem, traditionally associated with the tribes of Syria, Arabia, Iraq and Iran (Persia).
    Also, according to Josephus, the land surrounded by the River Ganges i.e. ancient India (Havilah) via Joktan, the son of Eber. Greater India and Persia, it is thought then travelled via the Malayan Peninsular to form the modern day indigenous peoples of Indonesia, Polynesia and the Philippine islands.
    Also from Eber came the Hebrew people, the people of Israel, the Jews who were also forced to scatter worldwide 639BC - 135AD.
  3. Japheth, associated with the ancient Greeks, the Romans, the Spanish, the Germans, the Gauls and the Celts, the Slavic peoples, and the Scythians throughout all of the north-east. A longitudinal mountain range ancient Mount Imeon divided Scythia Intra from Scythia Extra. Then possibly travelling via a Bering Straits land bridge along with some of the peoples of ancient China, they became the present day indigenous tribes of North and South America. Real expansion.

Back to this passage in scripture. There is no mention in Noah's prophecy of Ham's other three sons, Mizraim Put and Cush.
Those last three traditionally became warring, dominating nations:

  1. Mizraim became Egypt, called Rahab (Proud, Strong).
  2. Put became Libya in Africa, the neighbour of Egypt.
  3. Cush became Babylon (ancient Babel and Babylonia) and later the main people group of Ethiopia and Sudan.
    Babylon's traditions (eg the Code of Hammurabi), its maths and sciences impacted nations everywhere.
 In Chapter 10 we read of Shem's (Semitic) descendants at the same time as we see the separation of humanity into various nations.
Arphaxad 2360 — Salah 2325 — Eber (Hebrew) 2295 who lives 464 years — Peleg 2261 who lives 239 years. In his days the earth was physically broken up into parts (palag in Hebrew).
See Gen 10:22-11:32.
Initially, we are told, Noah's three sons and their wives became 16 families. The next generation, say 30-40 years later, sees these families rapidly multiply e.g. Cush is recorded with having six sons, Canaan is recorded as having eleven sons, Mizraim eight sons, as well as daughters. With this rapid rate of generation, these families thus became 200-300 families (at least) inside one hundred years, when we see the Tower of Babel.
 Tower of Babel, a "skyscraper" to be built into the sky, to bring glory upon themselves (and to keep everyone together). Led by Nimrod (the son of Cush, the son of Ham). God accordingly sends angels to confuse that single language that they were using. It certainly stopped the tower with a major communication breakdown — a division of languages that occurred between all the families.

At this time the earth was simply one land mass, one continent, South America and Africa and India were joined, and around the edges of Asia there were no islands. Australia was simply part of the mainland.

With regards to Australia, and given some of the unique animals that live here – koalas, kangaroos, kookaburras, dingoes, platypus – the separation of its landmass from Africa, accompanied with the land mass of Antarctica, occurred within a few hundred years of the flood i.e. 4,000 years ago. A few of the forefathers of Australia's present day indigenous tribes thus became also forefathers of the indigenous tribes up in Papua New Guinea, and possibly the dark-skinned Negritos, up in the Philippines.

Click here for a map. Due to "technical" refusal to acknowledge "God's division" of the land after the flood along ancient fractures, those images assume a static continental drift (2½cms per year, 7cms for Australia) of over 100 million years.

Well, however it was, with an abundance of land to travel overland to, and minimal war at least initially, so many indigenous groups now rapidly formed and grew. If we look at 250 years using that previous multiplication rate, the human race now went from, say, 200-300 families to up to 10 million families or even more. And Babel now became the empire of Babylonia, and the basis of all our current nation groups (the Gentiles) with its maths and sciences.

Click here for various estimates of the earth's population growth according to fossil records.

Click here for actual population growth in China, in India, in other parts of Asia and Africa and the West, based on these and other records. Due to wars and natural disasters the world's size slowly rose, becoming

1. 50 million in 1000 BC with Israel's population perhaps 4-5 million at the time of David and Solomon. King Solomon's wealth and his fame went out worldwide. He himself spoke 3,000 proverbs, wrote 1,005 songs, and accumulated knowledge of trees, animals, birds, fish and more. A major star. But he departed from the Lord.
2. 200 million in 1 AD
3. 500 million in 1500 AD
4. 1 billion in 1800 AD
5. before accelerating rapidly through patriarchal societies in Africa, in North, Central and South America, in the Middle East and Asia to reach around 8 billion today in 2024 AD. Many western countries in Europe (including Russia) have slowed or even frozen their population growth since 1900. While islands like Java in Indonesia have grown from 4 million in 1800 to 40 million in 1930 to 150 million in 2024.

Click here for a translation by Josephus in 93 AD. So going back to Noah, with these families unable to get along, in order to minimise war and keep growing, they spread from one end of this land mass to the other end. Along with new animal species, forming the start of a new "human age" worldwide as so many historic records recount, e.g. Vedic tribes in India, the Xia dynasty in China, all made in the "image of God", the children of Noah and his wife, the children of Shem, Ham, and Japheth. Next came the effect of the weight of water on earth after the flood, breaking up, forging new courses, dividing on old fractures, moving land, India having also separated from Africa as an island, now crashing into Asia to form the Himalayas, more floods, changing the whole layout. What a time that must have been, hey ?

 Reu 2231 — Serug 2199 — Nahor 2169 — Terah 2140 who lives 205 years i.e. until 1935BC
2011 BCNoah (2962-2012) — father of all of our present age has now died. In his place, Abraham father of faith is conceived and born.
2010 BC
The Son
2008 years
First year of Abram — Father of height. Lives 175 years. Gen 25:7 Called to land of Canaan so his offspring may be a special nation. Moves only from Ur to Haran also called Carrhae. Stays until the age of 75 when his father dies. Gen 12:1-4, Acts 7:2-4
1935 BCReaches Shechem in Canaan, receives promise that this would be the land, and then famine prompts him to go down temporarily to Egypt. There would now follow 430 years, then the promise would be followed by the Law, when sojourning in Egypt would end. See Galatians 3:17, Exodus 12:40
1911 BCAt 99 years of age, renamed Abraham — Father of a multitude. Next year, Isaac born. Lives 180 years. Genesis 35:28
1905 BCIsaac weaned. Ishmael's mocking / contempt (Ishmael-son of Sarah's Egyptian handmaid Hagar) commences a period Abraham had foreseen in horror. His descendants "of promise via the Spirit" would be strangers in the land, alienated and working for those who were "according to the flesh" for 400 years. See Genesis 15:13, Genesis 21:9, Genesis 21:25-30, Genesis 23:4-16, and Galatians 4:29
1850 BCBirth of Jacob. Younger twin of Esau. Name means "Heel Catcher" or Supplanter. Pressures his brother after his brother comes in hungry from working all day, to "sell" him his birthright for a bowl of food. Esau did so, "despising" the honour of his birthright.
1773 BCAt the age of (about) 77, Jacob tricks his father into blessing him instead of Esau to gain the inheritance. Flees to his uncle Laban's property, having a vision of angels ascending and descending upon the stone where his head lay (on the way at Bethel). Now with Laban, serves seven years for Rachel, but receives Leah as bride instead. Agrees to serve another seven years for Rachel, during which time he has 6 sons and 1 daughter from Leah, 2 sons from Bilhah (Rachel's maid), 2 sons from Zilpah (Leah's maid), and finally 1 son (Joseph) from Rachel. Serves 6 more years with Laban, uses a somewhat supernatural approach to reproduction, faith and visuals to become quite wealthy.
1753 BCThen, at the age of (about) 97, he returns to face Esau, and very fearful of him. After sending Esau gifts and honour, Jacob now wrestles with an angel all night. As the day dawned the angel touches his hip, causing a permanent limp, and as Jacob now "clings" to him, the angel says Jacob will no longer be called Jacob, a "heel catcher", but instead Israel, a prince or "warrior" with God. That very same day, Esau welcomes him with strong affection.
Click here for further details of this period.

1720 BCJacob takes his descendants (66 in total + wives) including Judah (Jews) to Egypt where Joseph (with his two sons Ephraim and Manasseh) is in charge — under Pharaoh.
 Click here for a list of those initial family numbers the 1st generation, and their major multiplication in scripture records, possibly a factor of 10 every fifty years.
By 1680 BC they may well have become 600 men the 2nd generation, by 1630 BC after Joseph has died, 6000 men the 3rd generation. In 1585 BC when Moses was born, the number may well have proliferated to 60,000 the 4th generation. About this time, a pharaoh came on the throne in the south who declared war on the Hyksos, enemies from Canaan in the north, (according to Josephus, the "shepherd kings" which included the Hebrews).
In Wikipedia, his name is recorded as Seqenenre Tao. His daughter who adopted and protected Moses was named "Thermuthis" according to Josephus and there is a record in that Wikipedia article of a princess "Tumerisy".


1505 BCExodus. The Law — 430 years after promise to Abraham. Moses (a Levite), 80 years old, leads the Israelites, 600,000 men, plus women and children, out of Egypt. Click here for the Egyptian Pharaoh at that time, thought to be Thutmose II, minimal recorded history, and is himself succeeded by his wife. But Israel having minimal faith, they now wander in the wilderness 40 years. Galatians 3:17, Acts 13:18
 God wants Israel to be his special prophetic nation, but with many, their fear of losing battles and being killed just ends up controlling them.
1465 BC1st year in the land with Joshua (from Ephraim) leading a new generation into Canaan. Deu 26:5
450 years with prophetic judge/administrators until Samuel whom they beseech for a king (Acts 13:20).
 God wanted Israel to rule Canaan ruined by a new breed of giants and wilful people groups, but after Joshua, many become a community with, and are then enslaved by them.
 Times of failure — intermarrying with peoples there — leads to idolatry / demon worship 1 Cor 10:19. God handed them over to servitude 6 times — 94 years in total. Click here for details. Story of the deliverers — Deborah, Gideon, Samson, others.
1015 BCSamuel becomes judge/administrator. Covers 40 years (see Acts 13:21). 20 years go by and he anoints Saul (a Benjaminite) to be king.
1005 BCBirth of David (see 2 Samuel 5:4). Within 2 years of being king, Saul's bad choices sadden God. David is chosen.
 975 BC491st year (10th Jubilee click here re 70th Jubilee Year) — Reign of King David (from Judah) — 40 years (see 1 Kings 2:11) — establishes kingdom of Israel — wiping out many, though not all (1 Kings 9:20), giants & associated tribes 2 Samuel 21:15-22 And gets into trouble when he numbers God's people, these people of Israel.
 935 BC1st year of reign of King Solomon (David's son) — Reigns 40 years (see 1 Kings 11:42)
 931 BCStarts building the temple in April-May 931 BC, Solomon's 4th year of reign. It is the 480th year of being out of Egypt excluding the 94 years above 1 Kings 6:1. Finishes the temple in October-November 925 BC, Solomon's 11th year of reign. 1 Kings 6:38. Dedicated on Rosh Hashanah in 912 BC, with seven years spent on the temple, thirteen years on his own house.
 And Solomon's 700 wives turn his heart away from the Lord — to idolatry. (1 Kings 11:1-8)
 895 BCAfter his reign Israel splits into two as the tribes rebel against the new king (from Judah) with his heavy tax burden. 390 years of hardship — bound by sin — then Jerusalem falls.
Click here for details of these 390 years.  Ezekiel 4:4-5
 Judah (including Benjamin) becomes the kingdom in the south, and the rest of Israel (at times called Ephraim) form a kingdom in the north.
This is the period when prophets Elijah and Elisha do many miracles, and with other prophets, bring God's words, endeavouring to get peoples' attention. Some respond.
 639 BCThe Assyrian king wipes out the northern kingdom (after 838 BC known as Samaria 1 Kings 16:24). Takes them into Assyria, replacing them with people from other nations. 2 Kings 17:23-24
 532 BCNineveh in Assyria falls to Babylon.
 524 BCNebuchadnezzar arrives in Jerusalem with 400 years exactly having passed from when the temple was finished.
 Ptolemy's secular Canon of Kings (ca. 160 AD) — a list which excluded Darius the Mede — placed Nebuchadnezzar's 1st year in 604 BC, 80 years prior. However, the later year reconciles the timeline with
1. Daniel's 69 sevens prophecy coming to pass below, followed by a second destruction of Jerusalem.
2. The current Jewish year number — showing a much later year for their exile in Babylon.
Click here for a reconciliation to the Jewish timeline.
 523 BCYoung Jewish nobles exiled to Babylon in 523BC. 70 years Judah laid waste. In 2nd year Daniel's prophecies start. Jeremiah 25:1-11, Daniel 1:1-21, Daniel 2:1-49
 506 BCJerusalem temple destroyed July-August 506 BC in King Neb's 19th year 2 Kings 25:8.
 505 BCEgypt. Judah sets off back to Egypt. It is 390 years from end of Solomon's reign and exactly 1000 years from Exodus. Now, 40 years of judgment on Egypt from Babylon. See Ezekiel 4:6, Ezekiel 29:12, Jer 43:4-13 cf Rev 13:10.
 465 BCBabylon's reign ends. Darius the Mede takes the throne. Daniel exalted to chief president. Vision. Dan 9:1-27
 453 BCClick here for more details of Jewish and world history over the next 390 years:- 453BC - 63BC and the arrival of the Romans. But first, Babylon's last king (Nabonidus) fallen in battle to Cyrus. So, 70 years exile ends. Start of 70 sevens. Zerubbabel with Joshua the High Priest leads a group of Jews back to Israel by Cyrus's decree in his 1st year Ezra 1:1-4. Temple foundation noisily laid Ezra 3:11. But there are delays.
 435 BC Restarts Jan-Feb 435 BC in Darius's second year, see Zechariah 1:7. It is now 70 years after its destruction (see verse 12 of the same chapter). Finished 431 BC in Darius's sixth year in time for the passover.
 417 BCEzra the priest returns in the 7th year (Ezra 7:8) of Artaxerxes, thirteen years prior to his 20th year when Nehemiah is due to return.
 404 BCIt is now 49 years following 453 BC (7 sevens) the 20th year of Artaxerxes — see Daniel 9:25, and Nehemiah 2:1. Nehemiah quietly (Neh 2:12) returns and rebuilds the walls over a 52-day span (Neh 6:15). People now await the 62 sevens, the coming of the Anointed One known as Messiah (Hebrew) or Christ (Greek).
  2 BC
Holy Spirit
2008 years
400 silent years pass — Esther (Est 4:14) to Zacharias — who himself was made silent following his hardness in accepting the angel of God's word about Elizabeth's upcoming pregnancy in September-October 3 BC — with John the Baptist (Luke 1:20). John born, then Jesus, in the 3rd year of the 194th Olympiad, in Luke, 77th generation from God — see also Matthew. For a reconciliation of Jesus's birth with the imminent death of King Herod — the King of the Jews, click here.
  31 ADIt is now 434 years (62 sevens) from Nehemiah till the coming of Christ. Jesus, now 31, enters Jerusalem and is crucified / "cut off" the day before the Sabbath. God raises him back to life on the Sunday (March 25th that year). The widespread covering & empowering of the Holy Spirit on the day of Pentecost (50 days later).

Click here for the timeline of the apostle Paul and his divine encounters in the early church.

  70 ADAnd within 40 years, the city and temple destroyed again in mid 70 AD. It is 1000 years since Solomon started the 1st temple, 500 years from the finish of the 2nd. Much outward affliction but no outward return of Christ. The Jewish Council shifts to Tiberias and it becomes a place of protection for the Hebrew scriptures. And numerous displaced Jews settle in Spain, in the courts of Europe, and in China, acting as money changers for the markets and the nobles and building banking houses which now provide (intangible) economic services all over the world.

The Old Testament — the Scriptures

Click here and here re the Canon. Also this tripartite account of 22 books by Josephus. And by Jerome. And Luke 24:44

    Torah — The Law   Laid out like Pasture

  1. Genesis — beginnings — From 4018 BC to 1649 BC — Attributed to Moses from written (Gen 5:1-32) records kept of Adam (4018-3088) Enoch (3396-3031) Noah Gen 6:9 (2962-2012) Shem Gen 11:10 (2460-1860) Abraham Gen 11:27 (2010-1835) Isaac Gen 25:19-26 (1910-1730) and Jacob (1850-1703) and Joseph Gen 37:2 (1759-1649) and others, presumably using an ancient cuneiform script at the time of Seth up to the days of Shem and Eber, and then in the Proto-Sinaitic script used by God at Sinai.
    Click here for some background to the Cave of Shem and Eber (Hebrew) in Northern Israel.
  2. Exodus — going out (of Egypt) — From 1585 BC to 1505 BC — Israelites in Egypt. First 80 years of life of Moses, their exceedingly handsome leader see Acts 7:20, Hebrews 11:23-30 First year of freedom from Pharaoh's hand. The Law at Mt Sinai.
  3. Leviticus — the priests (intermediaries to God) via Aaron's family in Levi — 1505 BC — The laws & sacrifices that reveal God's heart (via the priests) & separate Israel from other nations.
  4. Numbers — first census (of all the tribes) — from 1504 BC to 1465 BC — Israel in the wilderness.
  5. Deuteronomy — repetition of the law — 1465 BC — Moses recounts the law to the new generation.

    Nevi'im — 12 Major Prophets   Shine Forth before the occurrence

  1. Joshua — From 1465 BC to 1435 BC — Joshua leads the people into Canaan, taking the land for God.
  2. Judges — administrators of justice — From 1435 BC to about 1055 BC — Times of deliverance and failure. Gideon, Samson. Attributed to Samuel.
  3. 1 Samuel — From 1055 BC to 975 BC — Story of Eli, Samuel the prophet, King Saul, David the shepherd boy. Attributed to Samuel, Nathan and Gad.
  4. 1 Kings — From 935 BC to 815 BC — Reign of King Solomon, King Ahab, Elijah the prophet. Attributed to Jeremiah.
  5. Isaiah — prophet in Judah — From 685 BC to 615 BC — Israel (northern kingdom) overthrow by Assyria, prophecies on Babylon, Cyrus and Christ
  6. Jeremiah — prophet in Judah — From 545 BC to 480 BC — Judah (southern kingdom) overthrow by Babylon
  7. Ezekiel — a prophet in captivity — From 512 BC to 490 BC — Jerusalem's overthrow and then prophecies on coming kingdom of Christ
  8. Job — about 1640 BC — first writing of the Old Testament. The story of Job, a man who suffers much, and receives a deeper revelation of God. No record of his ancestors. He lived in the land of Uz, settled by Edom. Attributed to Moses, perhaps through Elihu, after Job died 140 years later.
  9. Daniel — a prophet in Babylon — From 523 BC to 450 BC — His life and his prophecies of coming kingdoms and the kingdom of Christ
  10. 1 Chronicles — Adam to 453 BC — Genealogy from Adam to return from Babylon. Recap of King David. Attributed to Ezra.
  11. Ezra — 453 BC to 417 BC — Return from Babylon, temple rebuilt, story of Ezra the priest.
  12. Esther — about 390 BC — Story of a Jewish woman who married the King of Persia and saves her people. Attributed to Mordecai.

    Twelve Minor Prophets (viewed by Josephus as one book)

  1. Hosea — a prophet in Israel — From 700 BC to 640 BC — Prophecies to Israel regarding her unfaithfulness
  2. Joel — a prophet to Judah — Possibly about 700 BC — Short prophecy regarding Judah's coming overthrow
  3. Amos — a prophet to Israel, Judah & surrounding nations — About 700 BC — Prophecies concerning results of sin
  4. Obadiah — a prophet to Edom — a place south-east of Judah — possibly 700 BC — Short prophecy regarding overthrow of Edom
  5. Jonah — a prophet to Nineveh (capital of Assyria) — possibly 700 BC — Prophecy that enabled them to repent and avert judgment
  6. Micah — a prophet to Israel & Judah — From 670 BC to 620 BC — Prophecy as both nations became more openly rebellious to God
  7. Nahum — a prophet to Nineveh (capital of Assyria) — about 580 BC — possibly addressed to Ashurbanipal last great king of Assyria. Short prophecy on Nineveh's coming overthrow
  8. Habakkuk — a prophet to Judah — about 540 BC — Prophecy on Judah's overthrow by Babylon and then Babylon's coming destruction
  9. Zephaniah — a prophet to Judah — about 540 BC — Prophecy on Judah's utter desolation but coming restoration
  10. Haggai — a prophet in Judah — about 435 BC — Encouragement over the need to rebuild the temple
  11. Zechariah — a prophet in Judah — about 435 BC — Encouragement regarding the restoration and coming Christ
  12. Malachi — a prophet in Judah — about 430 BC — Encouragement to follow the Lord faithfully

    Kethuvim — The Writings   Songs to God and precepts for life

  1. Psalms — praise hymns Attributed to Moses, David (the majority), other writers, with Rabbinic literature ascribing the themes (if not the actual words) of two psalms back to Adam — Psalm 92 and Psalm 139.
  2. Proverbs — parables — about 900 BC Attributed to Solomon.
  3. Ecclesiastes — the preacher — perhaps 900 BC — the results of seeking wrong things Attributed to Solomon.
  4. Song of Songs — about 900 BC — True Satisfaction found in a relationship of Love Attributed to Solomon.

The four world empires recorded in Daniel 2:31-45, Daniel 7:1-28

Golden Head
About 532 BC, Assyrian empire falls to Nabopolassar in Babylon. In 523 BC his son, Nebuchadnezzar, captures Daniel — he becomes a royal servant — and then a leader (under God). Reigns about 67 years.
Silver Breast/Arms
In 465 BC, Darius the Mede takes the throne in Babylon after writing on the wall "Counted — Weighed — Divided". Daniel made emir / president. Click here for further details. Empire divides in two. Reigns 134 years.
Brass Belly/Sides
In 331 BC Alexander defeats Persian king at Gaugamela. Empire almost immediately divides in four (see Daniel 8:21-22). Reigns 268 years.
Iron Legs/Feet
In 63 BC, as Rome expands, Pompey takes Jerusalem from Aristobulus's followers. Reigns 536 years.

Empires — Defined by their Monetary Systems or so-called wealth.

Money comes from the Latin word moneta—"mint", linked to the temple of Juno Moneta, seen as the protector of Rome.
Zechariah 5 pictures the curse coming on the houses of anyone who steals (gets by deception) or anyone who swears (i.e. invokes a future certainty — Godlike — rather than using a simple yes,yes no,no — see James 4:13). Then we see an ephah — a 20 litre trading basket. It is filled with "Unrighteousness", a word personified as a woman. Referred to by Jesus as "Mamona" — Mammon, the "Great Mamma" — contrasted with the Temple to honour the Father rebuilt back in Zechariah 4. Carrying her talent of lead, a soft metal that quickly corrodes or decays, like our earthly treasures and earthly bodies, and used along with iron and copper to forge gold and silver coins. Flown to Babylon (Shinar) where her house is built — indeed the Persians are credited with building the Royal Road from Sardis in Lydia, traditional birthplace of government coinage. Coinage debased with added silver and copper. Also famous for its worship of Artemis (Diana). Paul had a famous encounter (Acts 19:22-41) with her silversmiths in Ephesus, a great trading centre, where her temple was seen as one of the seven wonders of the ancient world.
Now in Revelation 17:18, Babylon is revealed as Roma, the city of Rome who along with Juno is worshipped as a reigning queen, mother of harlots and idols (see also Libertas, Britannia), having many successive kings as her lovers, with their images being imprinted in metal coins. The passion of having this woman is like wine, seducing all the inhabitants of the world. Deception and lies.

Augustus, first emperor, saw himself as the descendant of Romulus, founder of Rome. By tradition, Romulus was said to be a descendant (via his mother) of the Trojan warrior, Aeneas. Romulus's father was said to be Mars, worshipped by the Romans as their god of war, with Romulus then having been nurtured in his childhood by a she-wolf, a wild beast. No wonder the Jews and many early Christians wanted nothing to do with them, or their beliefs.

"The seven heads on which the woman sits are seven mountains" — Rome famously sits on seven hills — "and seven kings/emperors".

  1. First emperor, as mentioned, was Augustus 27 BC — 14 AD. Great-nephew of Julius Caesar via his mother Atia and grandmother Julia.
  2. Tiberius 14 — 37 AD. Made a step-son of Augustus after Tiberius's mother Livia divorced his father and remarried Augustus, his third marriage and her second. She was pregnant at the time with Claudius Drusus, Tiberius's younger brother.
  3. Caligula 37 — 41 AD. Great-grandson of Augustus via his mother Agrippina the Elder, and his grandmother Julia, Augustus's daughter via his second marriage. Great-nephew of Tiberius via his father Germanicus and his grandfather Claudius Drusus.
  4. Claudius 41 — 54 AD. Great-nephew of Augustus via his mother Antonia, the daughter of Mark Antony and Augustus's elder sister Octavia. Son of Tiberius's brother, Claudius Drusus. Uncle of Caligula via his brother Germanicus. Married Agrippina the Younger, Caligula's younger sister and his niece, her 3rd marriage, his fourth.
  5. Nero 54 — 68 AD. Stepson of Claudius via his mother. Last emperor of Julio-Claudian dynasty. Killed his mother and his first two wives. Held responsible for setting Rome on fire in 64 AD which he blamed on Christians, Peter as well as Paul being executed during his reign. Ordered that the Jews be crushed when they rebelled in 66 AD. Then, as other provinces rebelled, with the aid of a secretary, committed suicide by driving a dagger into his throat in 68 AD. He was just 30 years old.

Click here for more family background to these 5 "fallen" emperors. Click here for a one-page PDF chart (Julius Caesar to Nero).

  1. Vespasian 69 — 79 AD First emperor of the Flavian dynasty, had invaded Judaea in 67 AD and brought Galilee under control.
  2. Titus 79 — 81 AD His son, who set Jerusalem on fire in 70 AD, reigned now for 2 years, then caught an infection and died.

In Revelation 17:11, an 8th emperor, the coming beast is one of those initial 7 emperors, one who'd had a deadly head wound from a sword, but is resurrected. See Revelation 17:8. Declared in early church writings to be the fifth emperor Nero, due to the "666" in the addition of the letters of his name in Hebrew records. The English equivalent letters are N-R-W-N Q-S-R, and thus 50+200+6+50+100+60+200 adds up to 666. With the resurrection of another beast known as the false prophet — see Revelation 13:11, ten national rulers hand over their power — their failed monetary systems to the beast, and in hatred, destroy the prostitute by fire — see Revelation 17:12-16.

Click here for a map of the Roman Empire around 400 A.D. With the advent of the emperor Diocletian, then Constantine, then Christianity becoming the approved religion of Rome, click here for details, the political and economic power of the empire shifted eastwards to Byzantium, (a city renamed as Constantinople and, since 1930, Istanbul).

474 AD The Roman Empire splits, with Julius Nepos, a man appointed in 474 AD to be emperor of the west by the eastern emperor, but rejected and deposed by the Roman Senate in Ravenna. Similarly the outward kingdom of heaven splits into east and west, click here for details, as it fills with hypocrisy (yeast) rather than with care. See Luke 12:1-3, Mat 13:33. At the same time, the unifying influence of a worldwide Christian calendar spreads everywhere, click here for details, based around the birth of the Lord.

Click here for a brief history timeline (with hyperlinks) of the past 2400 years.
Today, due to historic, political and economic reasons, there are five significant nations in the west :- America, Britain, France, Germany and Italy and there are five significant nations in the east :- Russia, Japan, India, China, and interestingly and increasingly the youngest nation Australia (currently has the sixth-most widely traded currency in the world after the US dollar, the euro, the yen the pound and the yuan). Within each, Iron and clay i.e. Power and weakness — Rich and poor — Right-wing, Left-wing mix but are unable to stick together (see this picture in the 10 toes of the feet Daniel 2:42-43). The world population has grown eight-fold since 1800 — 1 billion in 1800, 2 billion in 1927, 3 billion in 1959, 4 billion in 1974, 5 billion in 1986, 6 billion in 1999, 7 billion in 2011, then 8 billion in 2024. The pressure of war and trade can be seen everywhere. A significant quarter of the earth is devastated, as many die hopelessly daily.
While through the power of the Holy Spirit in faithful believers, Christ the true king who sticks closer than a brother (Proverbs 18:24) continues to build his church, his kingdom. As we long for his return.

Click here for a brief history of Jerusalem since 63 BC.

Click here for how our universal calendar (months,seasons,years) became BC and AD.

Click here for further thoughts on current events.


End of Article Note: Old Testament scriptures based on the Masoretic Text, compiled from ancient sources in the Assyrian script. Click here for further info.

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