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since Jesus 2BC - 31AD

  1. Carrier Wave on Internet

    Telegraph Telephone & ISPs

    TV Cable Set-Top

  2. Days God's 7 Day Week
    How did it come together and how many "atoms" got involved
    Greek Timeline
    Solon to Alexander the Great
    Cosmos and 5 Ages
    Science, Maps
    Stoic Epicurean, Eclectic
    Acts 17:18-21

    English written
  3. End Times Basis
    Marriage Feast of the Lamb
    Exodus God's Feast of Trumpets
    Israel's First 6 months
    Ethiopian Year Numbers plus Constantinople years, China, India Iran and Nepal
    Encyclopaedia Britannica
  4. Foreknowledge
    Fixing bounds and times in our lives
  5. God Jesus Church Christian
    in foreign languages
    Gold & Silver Prices 1965-2023


IBM's Floating Point animals
Single Precision1954 Double1962

Intel's 8 bit byte
History 1971 - 2024

Jehovah, its Hebrew meaning, Life, Breathing, and the Lord's Prayer

Jesus genealogies

Keyboard Summary

Lamb's Book of Life

Love God

Makeup of Man

Marriage and Betrothal
Its history

a brief timeline in Israel, Europe, England

Measurements Timeline
Distances, Weights, Volume

Milestone in 2020 for the 7,777,777,777th baby born

Mind & Soul

Movies Radio TV Timeline US

Music Timeline
Staffs, Do-Re-Mi, Clefs and Beats to the Bar

NBN Timeline
and latest statistics

Numerals and Early Maths
When did fractions become decimals

Radio Cells 1G-3G-5G SMS
+ Wi-Fi Bluetooth Miracast Smartshare Airplay

Recorded Songs and Movies,
TV, Books and Heroes

Reverse Phone Lookup Australia
Published phone numbers AU

Spinning Earth & Colours

TV and Radio Australia
and Newspaper Owners

Worldwide and in Australia

Volts & other terms

World Cities

What's up at the moment

Market News
from March 2020

Australia and Overseas shutdowns openings

Early COVID News
243 Aussie passengers (plus 4 pilots & 14 crew) left Wuhan via QANTAS flight on Monday 3rd February 2020 at 8am (local time).... Flight subsidised by Govt. Will spend up to 14 days in Quarantine on Christmas Island. QANTAS to cover all additional domestic fares.
Update: Christmas Island quarantine lifted
Paige Taylor
Sunday Feb 16
Australians quarantined on Christmas Island were on Sunday preparing for freedom as the islands temporary quarantine station scaled down.
Not everybody locked inside the Christmas Island detention centre can go home on Monday.
The 242 Australians who arrived from Wuhan on February 3 are scheduled to be delivered to the Christmas Island airport after a short bus tour of local sights — but 36 Australian citizens and permanent residents will stay behind.
The smaller group landed on the Indian Ocean territory 48 hours after the first arrivals, via a rescue flight arranged by the New Zealand government that went first to Auckland.
They can leave on Wednesday if they remain virus-free.
The 24 doctors, nurses and clinicians sent to oversee the quarantining of Australians on Christmas Island were on Sunday packing up gear and a tent hospital in the grounds of the Howard-era immigration detention centre.
The medical group — including a pharmacist and paediatrician — are from the Australian Medical Assistance Team led by Dan Holmes, who described an optimistic mood among evacuees on Sunday. 'Everything is going smoothly,' he said. He indicated the Christmas Island detention centre could be prepared for more quarantine work at short notice pending any decision to send more people. 'AUSMAT are ready whatever we are asked to do,' he said. 'Our tents can be built up in two hours when required.'
The role of Christmas Island as a quarantine station was arranged swiftly and there was uncertainty about whether the island had capacity to receive more evacuees.
Another 266 Australians took a Qantas rescue flight out of Wuhan on February 9 and went to a former resource sector workers camp at Howard Springs, near Darwin.

Recent News pre-COVID


Australian Christian Groups

Alliance of Community Feb2021
CBAA Bookselling Association
Koorong Shops
Wholesale Agencies

Australian Timelines

  1. Australian Early Maps
  2. Australian Eight Leaders
    Cook, Phillip, Hunter, King, MacArthur, Flinders, Bligh, Macquarie
  3. Australian Settlements

    1. Sydney 1788
      English settlers to Federation
    2. Hobart 1804
    3. Brisbane 1824
    4. Perth 1829
    5. Melbourne 1835
    6. Adelaide 1836
      plus Northern Territory, Aussie Ballots, Trade Unions
    7. New Zealand 1840
    8. PapuaNewGuinea 1884
      WW1, WW2, Independence
    9. Canberra 1927
  4. Banks big four timeline
  5. Christianity 1788 - 2022
  6. Christianity and recent PMs
  7. Citizenship
    and Indigenous people
  8. Compulsory Voting
    and compulsory enrolment
  9. CSIRO's John Bolton
    Pioneer at Dover Heights & Parkes
    Click here for early photos.
  10. Economy in 2022
    By 2020, Australia the world's biggest exporter of Iron Ore ($79.6B).
    Top import was Cars ($13.7B)
    Coal Briquettes ($36.4B), Aluminium Oxide ($3.59B), Sheep and Goat Meat ($2.7B), and Wool ($1.58B). Other top exports were Petroleum Gas ($26.8B) and Gold ($17.7B), exporting mostly to China ($102B), Japan ($31.8B), South Korea ($17.2B), United States ($11.6B), and India ($11.3B).
    Top imports were Cars ($13.7B), Refined Petroleum ($10.8B), Gold ($6.49B), Broadcasting Equipment ($6.38B), and Computers ($5.76B), importing mostly from China ($57.2B), United States ($24.2B), Japan ($12.2B), Thailand ($10.4B), and Germany ($9.67B).
    China is our largest trading partner, though Canberra has diversified since COVID.

  11. Electric Cars in 2023
  12. Employment in 2023
    13.903 million workers by industry. Since 1990, Manufacturing dropped from 14% to 6%, Health Care rose from 5% to 15%.
  13. GDP in 2010
    GDP + Tax stats 2019
    GDP adopted worldwide after 1944.
    US used GNP 1934-1991, GDP 1991. China adopted GDP 1993.
  14. GVA in 2021
    GVA (unlike GDP) includes Govt subsidies and excludes Indirect taxes (i.e. GST, Tariffs, Fuel, Payroll Tax, Land Tax etc)
  15. Our Origins by Ancestry
  16. Population 2020-2030
    Boomers and Gen X,Y,Z
  17. Population Growth
    by State plus Qld towns
  18. Renting in 2020
  19. Tax and Pensions
  20. Tax Revenue Fed State Local
    Total 2021 $593bn GDP $2 trillion
    a. GST ABNs 2.4mn 12%
    b. Company Tax 19%
    c. Personal PAYG 11mn 39%
    from 14.7mn returns
    d. State (PayrollTax, StampDuty Rego) & Local (Rates) 19%
    e. Fed (Customs, Excise, Fuel) 11%
    More info
  21. Wages AU and Debt US
  22. Wealth Households 2019

Other Country Status-Timelines

Intro - All countries

  1. By Brief History
    from 532BC Babylon
  2. By Currencies
  3. By GDP (and PPP)
  4. By Hemisphere North/South
  5. By Leaders and Flags
  6. By Population from Adam
    plus Historic Growth of Languages
  7. By Population by Country
    Countries Historic Growth
  8. By Population by Continent 2019
    showing Lifespan, Religions, also Links to 1930 & 1800
  9. By Population (Sortable) 2024
    Lifespan, UN member status, also Age Ranges
  10. By Population Growth 2024
  11. By Wealth
    with links to Allianz and CreditSuisse

Canada, US, Mexico

China Timeline

England Timeline

Euro Currency Status

Euroland and Greece

European & Slavic Alphabets
Bibles Churches

France Five Republics

Germany Charlemagne to Hitler

Gold Reserves Timeline

Hong Kong Trade Dollar Timeline

India Languages

Deep inside the plucky country

Florence, Venice, Sicily and Naples

Malaysia and Singapore

Parties: Tories & Whigs, Democrats & Republicans, Labour & Liberals

and Sanskrit

Spain under the Muslims

Space Travel Timeline

UN, NATO, EU Timeline

US, Canada, Mexico

World War 2 Timeline

Bibles / Aids

AUDIO Bible Gateway

Aids BLB Search
Book, Verse or Text

Aids Strongs
Dictionary Index

Aids Text Original
BibleHub by Book

Alphabets Hebrew, Greek

Aramaic, Arabic and Hebrew

Bible into English

  1. OT Hebrew Interlinear
  2. Apostolic Septuagint
    with Strongs numbering
  3. 4 Gospels 360AD
    Gothic Edition
  4. Early Editions
    Wessex, Wycliffe, Tyndale
  5. KJV
    The Passion & more
  7. Bible Prophecy

Church Buildings


Cosmos Search for life

Enoch's 8,000th Year

First Century Palestine

Hebrew (Old Testament)


  1. its Maps and Timeline
  2. Areas A,B,C
    Bethlehem, West Bank & East Jerusalem
  3. Bethlehem
  4. Community Census
    a. Israeli Jews Oct 2014
    b. Christians Jan 2019
  5. Driving/Traffic
    and Biblical Distances


  1. Its Walls and Timeline
  2. In 1st Century
    viewed from Mount of Olives
  3. Gate Map in 1918
  4. Britannica article

Religious Education in UK
compulsory since 1944

Seven Wonders of Ancient World

in Tonga and Worldwide

Computer Intro

First an introduction
Early Computer(s)
click here for the ENIAC, operational 1945-1955, initially at the University of Pennsylvania before being transferred to Maryland for US Army use in 1947. ...

It is often called the first computer with its coding capacity to conditionally "branch", as well as "loop", thus differentiating it from earlier adding machines and calculators. It was followed in England by the Manchester Baby in 1948, Cambridge University's EDSAC in 1949, and the US Army's EDVAC at Maryland first operational in 1952. They all followed mathematician John von Neumann's widely distributed paper in 1945 describing computer architecture, still used in almost all computers. IBM released its first computer also in 1952. In April 1957 following 3-4 years of development, IBM's "formulaic" software language compiler FORTRAN by John Backus was completed and ready for customer delivery.

COBOL, click here for those unfamiliar with its inventor, was a "business English" programming language which the US Department of Defence insisted that all computer manufacturers, if they wanted US Government contracts, had to be able to support. Launched in 1960, strongly supported by IBM after 1962, and the ICT/ICL 1900 series of business computers in England after 1964, by the year 1970 COBOL had become the most widely used programming language in the world.
Today it allegedly supports over 70% of business transaction processing worldwide, on IBM mainframes, including a vast number of Internet queries. In 2014 it was estimated that every second of the day there were 6,000 tweets sent, 30,000 Facebook "likes", 60,000 Google searches, and 1,100,000 IBM mainframe transactions processed worldwide.

Cobol is said to have 90% dominance in global financial transactions and is widespread through banks, supermarkets, governments, insurance and airlines. It's called a "third generation" (3GL) language. Standards are set by ISO / IEC, with 18 participating member countries and 27 observer member countries. The organization also provides oversight to five other (more formulaic) languages C,   C++,   Fortran, Ada and Prolog.

Click here for a brief summary of the meaning of 1, 2, 3 and 4GL languages. These early 3GLs contrast with later 3GLs (and 4GLs), now with run-time systems or "virtual machines" built using C and C++ compiled executables, e.g. Java now owned by the Oracle Corporation, and Javascript whose trademark is owned by Oracle, and standardized by Euro group ECMA International.
In Australia, click here for our Aussie banks IT systems (and some of the dramas at switching over to Java at NAB and Suncorp).

Click here and here for the level of demand for COBOL programmers worldwide in 2022. The estimated 800 billion lines of code in daily use, and $2 trillion said to have been invested over its 60 years via myriads of flowcharts and systems analysis, continues to play its part. While verbose, it is the most readable, understandable and self-documenting programming language available. Well written code is straightforward and robust — in a professional English-like way — explaining why financial institutions continue to depend on it. But the increasing dearth of experienced programmers will cause ongoing issues.
End of Intro

Go to Computer Timeline

Go to World Wide Web & Foreign Language Aids

1st our movers and shakers

1GL, 2GL, 3GL, 4GL
MachineCode to SQL

Assembly one step from machine code

Assembly x86 architecture



Cable, a timeline from 1873

Cable Pictures, VGA, DVI, HDMI, PS/2, Ethernet, USB, Thunderbolt, USB-C, DisplayPort (archived)

Cloud, Top seven companies

Computer Clocks code

Disk Drives

EPROM and Flash Memory
Basic information about memory chips, and programming

Facebook, its Founding & Facemash

a word size timeline

Honeywell's OSI Model 1984

IP Stack
Datagrams and how they work

and how they work

Keyboard Scan Codes

Memory how it works & MOS transistors

Mobile Codes

Mobile Timeline WW1 - 2011

Mobile Phones

NZ & Oceania,PNG

Number Allocation (Phones)

NBN Timeline 2010-2024

NBN Technology & Address Check

NBN Dec 2023
BaseConnections 8.8m

Telstra 3.55m 40.4%
... TPG 1.85m 21%
Optus 1.1m 12.7%
Vocus (Dodo,iPrimus) 740t 8.4%
Aussie Broadband 720t 8.2%
Other 810t 9.2%
Technology Types
FTTN 2.9m 33%
HFC 2m 23%
FTTP 2m 23%
FTTC (Curb) 1m 11%
FixedWireless 405t 5%
FTTB (Building) 280t 3%
Satellite 89t 1%
Non-NBN Connections
Mobile Broadband 4.3m
DSL 182t
HFC 91t
Fibre 183t
Satellite 30t

Operating Systems Overview

Peripheral Buses on PCs

Print Screen

Public Networking
Before the Internet

Standard Definition SD

High Definition HD Digital

languages timeline

USB How it works

USB Type A,B,Mini,Micro

Video Graphics
(over 35 years)

Computer Timeline
Software today

AT&T's C and Unix 1972

Early Bus S-100 1974

Early CP/M 1975

Early Home Computers

Early IMSAI 8080 1976

Early VisiCalc 1979

Early Wordstar 1979

Early dBASE II 1981

Intel Timeline

Mac/Apple Timeline

Microsoft Timeline

PowerShell Commands



Notepad's New UTF-8 Rules

WhatsApp vs FBMessenger

World Wide Web


Web Foreign Language Aids, Unicode Aids, Other Aids

ABCs Chinese Simplified
Uses Pinyin (Spell Sound)
e.g. zhong guo 中国 (Simp.)
(8,000 characters)

ABCs Chinese Traditional
e.g. zhong guo 中國 (Trad.)
(50,000 characters)

ABCs Chinese by Unicode

ABCs Do it in Hebrew

ABCs India various scripts

ABCs Japanese scripts
Romaji & Kanji
Hiragana & Katakana

ABCs Languages all
Top 10 million Websites
+ Internet Users by Language

Text to Unicode


Foreign Words Pronounced

Foreign TLDs Background

Google How it Works

plus Pronounciation

Hard Refresh in Chrome, Firefox, IE and Mac

HTML Non-ASCII Characters

HTML Commands

HTML CSS Reference

HTML Sorting ▲▼
WebPage Tables

HTML Spacing

NSLookup, Ping, TraceRT

Test IPv6 (or IPv4) address

Trace Email Source Originating Server

Website Down
or is it just me

Wingding Postscript

YouTube Demo 1
Raised From Dead
YouTube Demo 2
Hoyts FatherSon